Multiband Dynamic Range Compression for iOS Devices
This example shows how to use the Crossover Filter block and compressor System object™ from the Audio System toolbox™ to implement a multiband dynamic range compressor model. You can run the model on your host computer or deploy it to an Apple iOS device.
Dynamic range compression reduces the dynamic range of a signal by attenuating the level of strong peaks, while leaving weaker peaks unchanged. Compression has applications in audio recording, mixing, and broadcasting.
Multiband compression compresses different audio frequency bands separately, by first splitting the audio signal into multiple bands and then passing each band through its own independently adjustable compressor. Multiband compression is widely used in audio mastering and is often included in digital audio workstations.
The multiband compressor in this example first splits an audio signal into different bands using a multiband crossover filter. Linkwitz-Riley crossover filters are used to obtain an overall allpass frequency response. Each band is then compressed using a separate dynamic range compressor. Key compressor characteristics, such as the threshold, the compression ratio, the attack time and the release time are independently tunable for each band. You can run the model either on the host computer or an Apple iOS device.
To run this example on iOS devices you need the following hardware:
- iPhone, iPod or an iPad
- Host computer with Mac OS X system
- USB cable to connect the iOS device to host computer
The audiomultibandcompressoriOS model is a cascade of audio sources, a multiband crossover filter, compressors, and a display subsystem. It provides a choice of model running device (host computer or iOS device) and audio source (MATLAB workspace or microphone). You can choose the configuration by clicking the Configuration UI button.
A crossover filter can split an audio signal into two or more frequency bands. Its overall magnitude frequency response is flat, which retains frequency domain properties of an input audio signal.
In this model, you use the Crossover Filter block from Audio System Toolbox. You can open the block UI by clicking Crossover Filter UI and modify the cut-off frequencies.
Crossover Filter UI:
Note the Number of crossovers is set to 3 in this model to make a 4-band compressor. To make sure the model works properly, please keep Number of crossovers to be 3 and do not change it to other values.
Multiband Dynamic Range Compressor
In this example, the multiband dynamic range compressor is composed of four parallel single band compressors. Each single band compressor controls one frequency band, whose frequency range is set by the crossover filter.
There are four principal parameters for each single band compressor:
- Threshold - the level above which the input signal is compressed
- Ratio - the amount of compression
- Attack time - the time it takes the compressor gain to rise from 10% to 90% of its final value when the input goes above the threshold
- Release time - the time it takes the compressor gain to drop from 90% to 10% of its final value when the input goes below the threshold
In this example, you can modify the parameters for the four bands independently and view the static compression characteristic plots in real time.
Run Model on the Host Computer
When you choose to run the model on the host computer, you can tune the compressor parameters by clicking Compressor Host Tuning UI.
Compressor Host Tuning UI:
The UI enables you to tune the parameters of four single-band compressors individually, and view the static compression characteristics in real time. You can check the Bypass check box to compare the modified sound with the original sound.
Click the View static characteristic button to visualize the static compression characteristic plot.
To compare the dynamic range of the uncompressed and compressed signals, the dynamic range is computed and displayed on the Simulink Model Display bar. The waveform of the uncompressed and compressed signals is also plotted in real time.
Waveform of the uncompressed and compressed signals:
Run Model on an Apple iOS Device
To run the model on your Apple iOS device, you need to first ensure that you have installed Simulink Support Package for Apple iOS Devices and that your iOS device is provisioned.
Once your iOS device is properly configured, use a USB cable to connect the device to your host computer.
You can choose to make an iOS standalone app by clicking the Deploy to hardware button on the Simulink Editor toolbar. After deployment, the app can run on your iOS device even when it is disconnected from the host computer. The compressor parameter tuning UI and the dynamic range display are designed on your iOS device screen, as shown below:
You can also run the model in External mode by clicking the Run button on the Simulink Editor toolbar. To run in External mode, the iOS device must stay connected to the host computer. Besides tuning compressor parameters on the iOS device screen, in this mode, you can open the Crossover Filter UI on the host computer and modify the cut-off frequencies while the model is running. This mode also enables you to view the dynamic range of the uncompressed and compressed signals in real time on the host computer.