MATLAB Examples

Unit Test External C Code with MATLAB Coder

This example shows how to test external C code by using MATLAB® unit tests with MATLAB® Coder™.

If you want to test C code, you can use MATLAB Coder to bring the code into MATLAB. You can then write unit tests by using the MATLAB testing framework. You can write richer, more flexible tests by taking advantage of the advanced numerical computing and visualization capabilities of MATLAB.

This example shows how to:

  1. Bring your C code into MATLAB as a MEX function that you generate with MATLAB Coder.
  2. Write a unit test by using the MATLAB testing framework.
  3. Run the test on the MEX function.

If you have Embedded Coder®, you can run unit tests on generated standalone code (static library or shared library) by using the unit tests with software-in-the-loop (SIL) execution or processor-in-the-loop (PIL) execution.

Contents

Examine the Files

To access the files that this example uses, click Open Script.

kalmanfilter.c

kalmanfilter.c is the C function that the example tests. It estimates the position of a moving object based on its past positions.

kalmanfilter.h

kalmanfilter.h is the header file for kalmanfilter.c.

position.mat

position.mat contains the positions of the object.

callKalmanFilter.m

callKalmanFilter calls kalmanfilter by using coder.ceval.

function [a,b] = callKalmanFilter(position)
% Copyright 2014 - 2016 The MathWorks, Inc.

numPts = size(position,2);

a = zeros(2,numPts,'double');
b = zeros(2,numPts,'double');
y = zeros(2,1,'double');

% Main loop
for idx = 1: numPts
    z = position(:,idx);     % Get the input data
    
    % Call the initialize function
    coder.ceval('kalmanfilter_initialize');
    
    % Call the C function
    coder.ceval('kalmanfilter',z,coder.ref(y));
    
    % Call the terminate function
    coder.ceval('kalmanfilter_terminate');
    
    a(:,idx) = [z(1); z(2)];
    b(:,idx) = [y(1); y(2)];
end
end

TestKalmanFilter.m

TestKalmanFilter tests whether the error between the predicted position and actual position exceeds the specified tolerance. The unit tests are class-based unit tests. For more information, see docid:matlab_prog.bufaqr6-1.

Although you want to test the MEX function, the unit tests in TestKalmanFilter call the original MATLAB function from which you generated the MEX function. When MATLAB Coder runs the tests, it replaces the calls to the MATLAB function with calls to the MEX function. You cannot run these tests directly in MATLAB because MATLAB does not recognize the coder.ceval calls in callKalmanFilter.

classdef TestKalmanFilter < matlab.unittest.TestCase
    % Copyright 2014 - 2016 The MathWorks, Inc.
    
    methods ( Test )
        
        function SSE_LessThanTolerance( testCase )
            load position.mat;
            [z,y] = callKalmanFilter( position );
            
            tolerance = 0.001; % tolerance of 0.0001 will break
            A = z-1000*y;
            error = sum(sum(A.^2));
            
            testCase.verifyLessThanOrEqual( error, tolerance);
            
            % For debugging
            plot_kalman_filter_trajectory(z,1000*y);
        end
        
        function SampleErrorLessThanTolerance( testCase )
            load position.mat;
            [z,y] = callKalmanFilter( position );
            
            tolerance = 0.01;   % tolerance of 0.001 will break
            A = z-1000*y;

            testCase.verifyEqual(1000*y, z, 'AbsTol', tolerance);
            % For debugging
            plot_kalman_filter_trajectory(z,1000*y);
            
            [value, location] = max(A(:));
            [R,C] = ind2sub(size(A),location);
            disp(['Max value ' num2str(value) ' is located at [' num2str(R) ',' num2str(C) ']']);
        end
    end
end

run_unit_tests_kalman.m

run_unit_tests_kalman calls runtests to run the tests in TestKalmanFilter.m.

% Run unit tests
% Copyright 2014 - 2016 The MathWorks, Inc.

runtests('TestKalmanFilter')

plot_kalman_filter_trajectory.m

plot_kalman_filter_trajectory plots the trajectory of the estimated and actual positions of the object. Each unit test calls this function.

Generate MEX and Run Unit Tests in the MATLAB Coder App

To open the MATLAB Coder app, on the MATLAB Toolstrip Apps tab, under Code Generation, click the MATLAB Coder app icon.

To prepare for code generation, advance through the app steps.

  • On the Select Source Files page, specify that the entry-point function is callKalmanFilter.
  • On the Define Input Types page, specify that the input argument x is a 2-by-310 array of doubles.

The unit tests load the variable position from position.mat and pass position to callKalmanFilter. Therefore, the input to callKalmanFilter must have the properties that position has. In the MATLAB workspace, if you load position.mat, you see that position is a 2-by-310 array of doubles.

  • Skip the Check for Run-Time Issues step for this example.

Configure the app for MEX code generation. Specify the names of the C source and header files because callKalmanFilter integrates external C code.

  1. For Build type, specify MEX.
  2. Click More Settings.
  3. On the Custom Code tab:
  • Under Custom C Code for Generated Files, select Header file. In the custom code field, enter #include "kalmanfilter.h".
  • In the Additional source files field, enter kalmanfilter.c.

To generate the MEX function, click Generate.

Run the unit tests on the generated MEX.

  1. Click Verify Code.
  2. In the field for the test file, specify run_unit_tests_kalman.
  3. Make sure that you set Run using to Generated code.
  4. Click Run Generated Code.

When the app runs the test file, it replaces calls to callKalmanFilter in the unit test with calls to callKalmanFilter_mex. The unit tests run on the MEX function instead of the original MATLAB function.

The app displays the test output on the Test Output tab. The unit tests pass.

From the plots, you can see that the trajectory of the estimated position converges with the trajectory of the actual position.

Run Unit Tests After Modifying C Code

When you modify the C code, to run the unit tests:

  1. Regenerate the MEX function for the MATLAB function that calls the C code.
  2. Repeat the verification step.

For example, modify kalmanfilter.c so that the value assigned to y[r2] is multiplied by 1.1.

y[r2] += (double)d_a[r2 + (i0 << 1)] * x_est[i0] * 1.1;

Edit kalmanfilter.c outside of the app because you can use the app to edit only MATLAB files listed in the Source Code pane of the app.

To generate the MEX function for the modified function, click Generate.

To run the unit tests:

  1. Click Verify Code.
  2. Make sure that you set the test file to run_unit_tests and Run using to Generated code
  3. Click Run Generated Code.

The tests fail because the error exceeds the specified tolerance.

The plots show the error between the trajectory for the estimated position and the trajectory for the actual position.

Generate MEX and Run Unit Tests by Using the Command-Line Workflow

You can use the command-line workflow to run unit tests on external C code by using coder.runTest. Specify a test file that runs the unit tests on the MATLAB function that calls your C code.

Generate a MEX function for the MATLAB function that calls your C code. For this example, generate MEX for callKalmanFilter.

Create a configuration object for MEX code generation.

cfg = coder.config('mex');

Specify the external source code and header file.

cfg.CustomSource = 'kalmanfilter.c';
cfg.CustomHeaderCode = '#include "kalmanfilter.h"';

To determine the type for the input to callKalmanFilter, load the position file.

load position.mat

To generate the MEX function, run codegen. Specify that the input to callKalmanFilter has the same type as position.

codegen -config cfg callKalmanFilter -args position

Run the units tests on the MEX function. Specify that the test file is run_unit_tests_kalman and that the function is callKalmanfilter. When coder.runTest runs the test file, it replaces calls to callKalmanFilter in the unit test with calls to callKalmanFilter_mex. The unit tests run on the MEX function instead of the original MATLAB function.

coder.runTest('run_unit_tests_kalman', 'callKalmanFilter')
Running TestKalmanFilter
Current plot held
.Current plot held
Max value 0.0010113 is located at [2,273]
.
Done TestKalmanFilter
__________


ans = 

  1x2 TestResult array with properties:

    Name
    Passed
    Failed
    Incomplete
    Duration
    Details

Totals:
   2 Passed, 0 Failed, 0 Incomplete.
   24.447 seconds testing time.