MATLAB Examples

802.11a Transmission and Reception Using Analog Devices AD9361/AD9364

This example shows how to transmit and receive WLAN packets on a single SDR platform, using Xilinx® Zynq-Based Radio Support Package with MATLAB® and WLAN System Toolbox™. An image file is encoded and packed into WLAN packets for transmission, and subsequently decoded on reception.

Refer to the Getting Started documentation for details on configuring your host computer to work with the Support Package for Xilinx® Zynq-Based Radio.



You can use WLAN System Toolbox to generate standard-compliant waveforms. These baseband waveforms can be upconverted for RF transmission using SDR hardware such as Xilinx Zynq-Based Radio. The Repeated Waveform Transmitter functionality with the Zynq® radio hardware, allows a waveform to be transmitted over the air and is received using the same SDR hardware. The received waveform is captured and downsampled to baseband using a Xilinx Zynq-Based Radio and is decoded to recover the transmitted information as shown in the following figure.

This example imports and segments an image file into multiple MPDUs, where each MPDU includes a MAC header, a variable length frame body (MSDU) and a FCS (Frame Check Sequence), which contains a 32 bit CRC. The MPDUs are sequentially numbered using the sequence control field in the MAC header of each MPDU. The MPDUs are passed to the PHY layer as PSDUs. Each PSDU data is packed into a single NonHT, 802.11a™ [ 1 ] WLAN packet using WLAN System Toolbox. This example creates a WLAN baseband waveform using the wlanWaveformGenerator function. This function consumes multiple PSDUs and processes each to form a series of PPDUs. The multiple PPDUs are upconverted and the RF waveform is sent over the air using Xilinx Zynq-Based radio as shown in the following figure.

This example then captures the transmitted waveform using the same Zynq radio hardware platform. The RF transmission is demodulated to baseband and the received MPDUs are ordered using the sequence control field in the MAC header. The information bits in multiple received MSDUs are combined to recover the transmitted image. The receiver processing is illustrated in the following diagram.

Example Setup

Before you run this example, perform the following steps:

  1. Configure your host computer to work with the Support Package for Xilinx Zynq-Based Radio. See Getting Started for help.
  2. Make sure that WLAN System Toolbox is installed. You must have WLAN System Toolbox license to run this example.

When you run this example, the first thing the script does is to check for WLAN System Toolbox.

% Check that WLAN System Toolbox is installed, and that there is a valid license
if isempty(ver('wlan')) % Check for WLAN System Toolbox install
    error('Please install WLAN System Toolbox to run this example.');
elseif ~license('test', 'WLAN_System_Toolbox') % Check that a valid license is present
    error( ...
        'A valid license for WLAN System Toolbox is required to run this example.');

The script then configures all of the scopes and figures that will be displayed throughout the example.

% Setup handle for image plot
if ~exist('imFig', 'var') || ~ishandle(imFig)
    imFig = figure;
    imFig.NumberTitle = 'off';
    imFig.Name = 'Image Plot';
    imFig.Visible = 'off';
    clf(imFig); % Clear figure
    imFig.Visible = 'off';

% Setup Spectrum viewer
spectrumScope = dsp.SpectrumAnalyzer( ...
    'SpectrumType',    'Power density', ...
    'SpectralAverages', 10, ...
    'YLimits',         [-150 -50], ...
    'Title',           'Received Baseband WLAN Signal Spectrum', ...
    'YLabel',          'Power spectral density');

% Setup the constellation diagram viewer for equalized WLAN symbols
constellation = comm.ConstellationDiagram('Title','Equalized WLAN Symbols',...

An SDR Transmitter system object is used with the named radio 'ZC706 and FMCOMMS2/3/4' to transmit baseband data to the SDR hardware.

By default, the example is configured to run with ZC706 and ADI FMCOMMS2/3/4 hardware. You can replace the named hardware 'ZC706 and FMCOMMS2/3/4' with 'ZedBoard and FMCOMMS2/3/4' or 'ADI RF SOM' in the deviceNameSDR variable to run with ZedBoard™ and ADI FMCOMMS2, FMCOMMS3, FMCOMMS4 hardware or ADI RF SOM.

%  Initialize SDR device
deviceNameSDR = 'ZC706 and FMCOMMS2/3/4'; % Set SDR Device
radio = sdrdev(deviceNameSDR);           % Create SDR device object

The following sections explain the design and architecture of this example, and what you can expect to see as the code is executed.

Transmitter Design

The general structure of the WLAN transmitter can be described as follows:

  1. Import an image file and convert it to a binary stream.
  2. Generate a baseband WLAN signal using WLAN System Toolbox, pack the binary data stream into multiple 802.11a packets.
  3. Prepare the baseband signal for transmission using the SDR hardware.
  4. Send the baseband data to the SDR hardware for upsampling and continuous transmission at the desired center frequency.

The transmitter gain parameter is used to impair the quality of the received waveform, you can change this parameter to reduce transmission quality, and impair the signal. These are suggested values, depending on your antenna configuration, you may have to tweak these values. The suggested values are:

  1. Set to 0 for increased gain (0dB)
  2. Set to -10 for default gain (-10dB)
  3. Set to -20 for reduced gain (-20dB)
txGain = -10;

Prepare Image File

The example reads data from the image file, scales it for transmission, and converts it to a binary data stream. The scaling of the image reduces the quality of the image by decreasing the size of the binary data stream.

The size of the transmitted image directly impacts the number of WLAN packets which are required for the transmission of the image data. A scaling factor is used to scale the original size of the image. The number of WLAN packets that are generated for transmission is dependent on the following:

  1. The image scaling that you set when importing the image file.
  2. The length of the data carried in a packet. This is specified by the msduLength variable.
  3. The MCS value of the transmitted packet.

The combination of scaling factor scale of 0.2, and MSDU length msduLength of 4048 as shown below, requires the transmission of 6 WLAN radio packets. Increasing the scaling factor or decreasing the MSDU length will result in the transmission of more packets.

% Input an image file and convert to binary stream
fileTx = 'peppers.png';            % Image file name
fData = imread(fileTx);            % Read image data from file
scale = 0.2;                       % Image scaling factor
origSize = size(fData);            % Original input image size
scaledSize = max(floor(scale.*origSize(1:2)),1); % Calculate new image size
heightIx = min(round(((1:scaledSize(1))-0.5)./scale+0.5),origSize(1));
widthIx = min(round(((1:scaledSize(2))-0.5)./scale+0.5),origSize(2));
fData = fData(heightIx,widthIx,:); % Resize image
imsize = size(fData);              % Store new image size
binData = dec2bin(fData(:),8);     % Convert to 8 bit unsigned binary
txImage = reshape((binData-'0').',1,[]).'; % Create binary stream

The example displays the image file that is to be transmitted. When the image file is successfully received and decoded, the example displays the image.

% Plot transmit image
imFig.Visible = 'on';
    title('Transmitted Image');
    title('Received image will appear here...');
    set(findall(gca, 'type', 'text'), 'visible', 'on');

pause(1); % Pause to plot Tx image

Fragment transmit data

The example uses the binary data stream that is created from the input image file txImage. The binary data stream is split into smaller transmit units of size msduLength. A MAC header and CRC field are added to each transmit unit to constitute an MPDU. The MPDUs are then sequentially passed to the physical layer for transmission.

The length of the MPDU should be less than 4096 bytes. In this example the msduLength field is set to 4048 bytes. This is to ensure that after appending the MAC header and CRC field with msduBits the length of the MPDU should not exceed 4095 bytes. The data in the last MPDU is appended with zeros, this is to make all MPDUs the same size.

msduLength = 4048; % MSDU length in bytes
msduBits = msduLength*8;
numMSDUs = ceil(length(txImage)/msduBits);
padZeros = msduBits-mod(length(txImage),msduBits);
txData = [txImage; zeros(padZeros,1)];

% Generate FCS and from an MPDU. The FCS is calculated using the standard
% generator polynomial of degree 32 as defined in section of
% 802.11n HT standard
generatorPolynomial = [32 26 23 22 16 12 11 10 8 7 5 4 2 1 0];
fcsGenerator = comm.CRCGenerator(generatorPolynomial);
fcsGenerator.InitialConditions = 1;
fcsGenerator.DirectMethod = true;
fcsGenerator.FinalXOR = 1;

% Divide input data stream into fragments
numFragment = 0;
bitsPerOctet = 8;
lengthMACheader = 256; % MPDU header length in bits
lengthFCS = 32;        % FCS length in bits
lengthMPDU = lengthMACheader+msduBits+lengthFCS; % MPDU length in bits
data = zeros(lengthMPDU*numMSDUs,1);

for ind=0:numMSDUs-1

   % Extract bits for each MPDU
   frameBody = txData(ind*msduBits+1:msduBits*(ind+1),:);

   % Generate MPDU header bits
   mpduHeader = helperNonHTMACHeader(mod(numFragment, ...

   % Create MPDU with header, body and FCS
   psdu = fcsGenerator([mpduHeader;frameBody]);

   % Concatenate PSDUs for waveform generation
   data(lengthMPDU*ind+1:lengthMPDU*(ind+1)) = psdu;


Generate IEEE 802.11a Baseband WLAN Signal

The NonHT waveform is synthesized using wlanWaveformGenerator with a non-HT format configuration object. The object is created using the wlanNonHTConfig function. The properties of the object contain the configuration. In this example an object is configured for a 20 MHz bandwidth, 1 transmit antenna and 64QAM rate 2/3 (MCS 6).

nonHTcfg = wlanNonHTConfig;         % Create packet configuration
nonHTcfg.MCS = 6;                   % Modulation: 64QAM Rate: 2/3
nonHTcfg.NumTransmitAntennas = 1;   % Number of transmit antenna
chanBW = nonHTcfg.ChannelBandwidth;
nonHTcfg.PSDULength = lengthMPDU/bitsPerOctet; % Set the PSDU length

% The sdrTransmitter uses the |transmitRepeat| functionality to transmit the
% baseband WLAN waveform in a loop from the DDR memory on the Zynq-Based
% Radio platform. The transmitted RF signal is oversampled and transmitted
% at 30MHz. The 802.11a signal is transmitted on channel 5 which correspond
% to center frequency of 2.432GHz as defined in section of [1]

sdrTransmitter = sdrtx(deviceNameSDR); % Transmitter properties

% Resample the transmit waveform at 30MHz
fs = wlanSampleRate(nonHTcfg); % Transmit sample rate in MHz
osf = 1.5;                     % OverSampling factor

sdrTransmitter.BasebandSampleRate = fs*osf;
sdrTransmitter.CenterFrequency = 2.432e9;  % Channel 5
sdrTransmitter.ShowAdvancedProperties = true;
sdrTransmitter.BypassUserLogic = true;
sdrTransmitter.Gain = txGain;
sdrTransmitter.ChannelMapping = 1;         % Apply TX channel mapping

% Initialize the scrambler with a random integer for each packet
scramblerInitialization = randi([1 127],numMSDUs,1);

% Generate baseband NonHT packets separated by idle time
txWaveform = wlanWaveformGenerator(data,nonHTcfg, ...
    'NumPackets',numMSDUs,'IdleTime',20e-6, ...

% Resample transmit waveform
txWaveform  = resample(txWaveform,fs*osf,fs);

fprintf('\nGenerating WLAN transmit waveform:\n')

% Scale the normalized signal to avoid saturation of RF stages
powerScaleFactor = 0.8;
txWaveform = txWaveform.*(1/max(abs(txWaveform))*powerScaleFactor);
% Cast the transmit signal to int16, this is the native format for the SDR
% hardware
txWaveform = int16(txWaveform*2^15);

% Transmit RF waveform
Generating WLAN transmit waveform:
## Establishing connection to hardware. This process can take several seconds.
## Waveform transmission has started successfully and will repeat indefinitely.
## Call the release method to stop the transmission.

Repeated transmission using SDR Hardware

The transmitRepeat function transfers the baseband WLAN packets with idle time to the SDR platform, and stores the signal samples in hardware memory. The example then transmits the waveform continuously over the air until the release method of the sdrTransmitter object is called. Messages are displayed in the command window to confirm that transmission has started successfully.

Receiver Design

The general structure of the WLAN receiver can be described as follows:

  1. Capture multiple packets of the transmitted WLAN signal using SDR hardware.
  2. Detect a packet
  3. Coarse carrier frequency offset is estimated and corrected
  4. Fine timing synchronization is established. The L-STF, L-LTF and L-SIG samples are provided for fine timing to allow to adjust the packet detection at the start or end of the L-STF
  5. Fine carrier frequency offset is estimated and corrected
  6. Perform a channel estimation for the received signal using the L-LTF
  7. Detect the format of the packet
  8. Decode the L-SIG field to recover the MCS value and the length of the data portion
  9. Decode the data field to obtain the transmitted data within each packet
  10. Perform cyclic redundancy code (CRC) check on the receive PSDUs
  11. Order the received PSDU based on the information in the Sequence Control field of the MAC header
  12. Combine decoded bit from all transmitted packet to form the received image

This example plots the Power Spectral Density(PSD) of the captured waveform, and shows visualizations of the equalized data symbols, and the received image.

Receiver Setup

The receiver is controlled using the properties defined in the sdrTransmitter object. The sample rate of the receiver is 30MHz, which is 1.5 times the baseband sample rate of 20MHz.

An SDR Receiver system object is used with the named radio 'ZC706 and FMCOMMS2/3/4' to receive baseband data from the SDR hardware.

sdrReceiver = sdrrx(deviceNameSDR);
sdrReceiver.BasebandSampleRate = sdrTransmitter.BasebandSampleRate;
sdrReceiver.CenterFrequency = sdrTransmitter.CenterFrequency;
sdrReceiver.OutputDataType = 'double';
sdrReceiver.ChannelMapping = 1; % Configure Rx channel map
sdrReceiver.EnableBurstMode = true;
sdrReceiver.NumFramesInBurst = 1; % Capture all packets in a single burst

% Configure receive samples equivalent to twice the length of the
% transmitted signal, this is to ensure that PSDUs are received in order.
% On reception the duplicate MAC fragments are removed.
samplesPerFrame = length(txWaveform);
sdrReceiver.SamplesPerFrame = samplesPerFrame*2;
spectrumScope.SampleRate = sdrReceiver.BasebandSampleRate;

% Get the required field indices within a PSDU
indLSTF = wlanFieldIndices(nonHTcfg,'L-STF');
indLLTF = wlanFieldIndices(nonHTcfg,'L-LTF');
indLSIG = wlanFieldIndices(nonHTcfg,'L-SIG');
Ns = indLSIG(2)-indLSIG(1)+1; % Number of samples in an OFDM symbol

Capture Receive Packets

The transmitted waveform is captured using the Xilinx Zynq-Based Radio.

burstCaptures = zeros(rx.SamplesPerFrame,1);

% SDR Capture
fprintf('\nStarting a new RF capture.\n')
len = 0;

while len == 0
    % Store twice the length of WLAN transmitted packet worth of
    % samples, burstCaptures holds sdrReceiver.PacketPerBurst number of
    % consecutive packet worth of baseband WLAN samples
    [burstCaptures,len,lostSamples] = sdrReceiver();
if lostSamples
    warning('Dropped samples');
Starting a new RF capture.
## Establishing connection to hardware. This process can take several seconds.

Receiver Processing

The example uses a while loop to capture and decode packets. The WLAN waveform is continually transmitted over the air in a loop, the first packet that is captured by the sdrReceiver is not guaranteed to be the first packet that was transmitted. This means that the packets may be decoded out of sequence. To enable the received packets to be recombined in the correct order, their sequence number must be determined. The Sequence Control field in the MAC header contains information on the current packet order and therefore must be decoded. The decoded PSDU bits for each packet are passed to the MAC layer where the Sequence Control field in the MAC header is recovered to determine the packet order. The while loop finishes receive processing when a duplicate frame is detected, which is finally removed during receiver processing. In case of a missing frame the quality of the image is degraded.

When the WLAN packet has successfully decoded, the detected sequence number is displayed in the command window for each received packet. The equalized data symbol constellation is shown for each receive packet.

% Show power spectral density of the received waveform

% Downsample the received signal
rxWaveform = resample(burstCaptures,fs,fs*osf);
rxWaveformLen = size(rxWaveform,1);
searchOffset = 0; % Offset from start of the waveform in samples

% Minimum packet length is 10 OFDM symbols
lstfLen = double(indLSTF(2)); % Number of samples in L-STF
minPktLen = lstfLen*5;
pktInd = 1;
sr = wlanSampleRate(nonHTcfg); % Sampling rate
fineTimingOffset = [];
packetSeq = [];
displayFlag = 0; % Flag to display the decoded information

% Generate FCS for MPDU
fcsDetector = comm.CRCDetector(generatorPolynomial);
fcsDetector.InitialConditions = 1;
fcsDetector.DirectMethod = true;
fcsDetector.FinalXOR = 1;

% Perform EVM calculation
evmCalculator = comm.EVM('AveragingDimensions',[1 2 3]);
evmCalculator.MaximumEVMOutputPort = true;

% Receiver processing
while (searchOffset + minPktLen) <= rxWaveformLen
    % Packet detect
    pktOffset = wlanPacketDetect(rxWaveform, chanBW, searchOffset, 0.8);

    % Adjust packet offset
    pktOffset = searchOffset+pktOffset;
    if isempty(pktOffset) || (pktOffset+double(indLSIG(2))>rxWaveformLen)
        if pktInd==1
            disp('** No packet detected **');

    % Extract non-HT fields and perform coarse frequency offset correction
    % to allow for reliable symbol timing
    nonHT = rxWaveform(pktOffset+(indLSTF(1):indLSIG(2)),:);
    coarseFreqOffset = wlanCoarseCFOEstimate(nonHT,chanBW);
    nonHT = helperFrequencyOffset(nonHT,fs,-coarseFreqOffset);

    % Symbol timing synchronization
    fineTimingOffset = wlanSymbolTimingEstimate(nonHT,chanBW);

    % Adjust packet offset
    pktOffset = pktOffset+fineTimingOffset;

    % Timing synchronization complete: Packet detected and synchronized
    % Extract the NonHT preamble field after synchronization and
    % perform frequency correction
    if (pktOffset<0) || ((pktOffset+minPktLen)>rxWaveformLen)
        searchOffset = pktOffset+1.5*lstfLen;
    fprintf('\nPacket-%d detected at index %d\n',pktInd,pktOffset+1);

    % Extract first 7 OFDM symbols worth of data for format detection and
    % L-SIG decoding
    nonHT = rxWaveform(pktOffset+(1:7*Ns),:);
    nonHT = helperFrequencyOffset(nonHT,fs,-coarseFreqOffset);

    % Perform fine frequency offset correction on the synchronized and
    % coarse corrected preamble fields
    lltf = nonHT(indLLTF(1):indLLTF(2),:);           % Extract L-LTF
    fineFreqOffset = wlanFineCFOEstimate(lltf,chanBW);
    nonHT = helperFrequencyOffset(nonHT,fs,-fineFreqOffset);
    cfoCorrection = coarseFreqOffset+fineFreqOffset; % Total CFO

    % Channel estimation using L-LTF
    lltf = nonHT(indLLTF(1):indLLTF(2),:);
    demodLLTF = wlanLLTFDemodulate(lltf,chanBW);
    chanEstLLTF = wlanLLTFChannelEstimate(demodLLTF,chanBW);

    % Noise estimation
    noiseVarNonHT = helperNoiseEstimate(demodLLTF);

    % Packet format detection using the 3 OFDM symbols immediately
    % following the L-LTF
    format = wlanFormatDetect(nonHT(indLLTF(2)+(1:3*Ns),:), ...
    disp(['  ' format ' format detected']);
    if ~strcmp(format,'Non-HT')
        fprintf('  A format other than Non-HT has been detected\n');
        searchOffset = pktOffset+1.5*lstfLen;

    % Recover L-SIG field bits
    [recLSIGBits,failCheck] = wlanLSIGRecover( ...
           nonHT(indLSIG(1):indLSIG(2),:), ...

    if failCheck
        fprintf('  L-SIG check fail \n');
        searchOffset = pktOffset+1.5*lstfLen;
        fprintf('  L-SIG check pass \n');

    % Retrieve packet parameters based on decoded L-SIG
    [lsigMCS,lsigLen,rxSamples] = helperInterpretLSIG(recLSIGBits,sr);

    if (rxSamples+pktOffset)>length(rxWaveform)
        disp('** Not enough samples to decode packet **');

    % Apply CFO correction to the entire packet
    rxWaveform(pktOffset+(1:rxSamples),:) = helperFrequencyOffset(...

    % Create a receive Non-HT config object
    rxNonHTcfg = wlanNonHTConfig;
    rxNonHTcfg.MCS = lsigMCS;
    rxNonHTcfg.PSDULength = lsigLen;

    % Get the data field indices within a PPDU
    indNonHTData = wlanFieldIndices(rxNonHTcfg,'NonHT-Data');

    % Recover PSDU bits using transmitted packet parameters and channel
    % estimates from L-LTF
    [rxPSDU,eqSym] = wlanNonHTDataRecover(rxWaveform(pktOffset+...
           (indNonHTData(1):indNonHTData(2)),:), ...

    constellation(reshape(eqSym,[],1)); % Current constellation
    pause(0); % Allow constellation to repaint
    release(constellation); % Release previous constellation plot

    refSym = helperReferenceSymbols(eqSym,rxNonHTcfg);
    [evm.RMS,evm.Peak] = evmCalculator(refSym,eqSym);

    % Remove FCS from MAC header and frame body
    [rxBit{pktInd},crcCheck] = fcsDetector(double(rxPSDU)); %#ok<SAGROW>

    if ~crcCheck
         disp('  MAC CRC check pass');
         disp('  MAC CRC check fail');

    % Process receive MAC fragments, this is to retrieve the sequencing
    % information of the MAC fragments
    [mac,packetSeq(pktInd)] = ...
           helperNonHTMACHeaderDecode(rxBit{pktInd}); %#ok<SAGROW>

    % Display decoded information
    if displayFlag
        fprintf('  Estimated CFO: %5.1f Hz\n\n',cfoCorrection); %#ok<UNRCH>

        disp('  Decoded L-SIG contents: ');
        fprintf('                            MCS: %d\n',lsigMCS);
        fprintf('                         Length: %d\n',lsigLen);
        fprintf('    Number of samples in packet: %d\n\n',rxSamples);

        fprintf('  EVM:\n');
        fprintf('    EVM peak: %0.3f%%  EVM RMS: %0.3f%%\n\n', ...

        fprintf('  Decoded MAC Sequence Control field contents:\n');
        fprintf('    Sequence number:%d\n',packetSeq(pktInd));

    % Update search index
    searchOffset = pktOffset+double(indNonHTData(2));

    pktInd = pktInd+1;
    % Finish processing when a duplicate packet is detected. The
    % recovered data includes bits from duplicate frame
    if length(unique(packetSeq))<length(packetSeq)

% Release the state of sdrTransmitter and sdrReceiver object
Packet-1 detected at index 4518
  Non-HT format detected
  L-SIG check pass 
  MAC CRC check pass

Packet-2 detected at index 18998
  Non-HT format detected
  L-SIG check pass 
  MAC CRC check pass

Packet-3 detected at index 33478
  Non-HT format detected
  L-SIG check pass 
  MAC CRC check pass

Packet-4 detected at index 47958
  Non-HT format detected
  L-SIG check pass 
  MAC CRC check pass

Packet-5 detected at index 62438
  Non-HT format detected
  L-SIG check pass 
  MAC CRC check pass

Packet-6 detected at index 76918
  Non-HT format detected
  L-SIG check pass 
  MAC CRC check pass

Packet-7 detected at index 91398
  Non-HT format detected
  L-SIG check pass 
  MAC CRC check pass

Reconstruct Image

The image is reconstructed from the received MAC frames.

if ~(isempty(fineTimingOffset)||isempty(pktOffset))&& ...
    % Remove the MAC header and duplicate captured MAC fragment
    rxBitMatrix = cell2mat(rxBit);
    rxData = rxBitMatrix(lengthMACheader+1:end,1:numel(packetSeq)-1);

    startSeq = find(packetSeq==0);
    rxData = circshift(rxData,[0 -(startSeq(1)-1)]);% Order MAC fragments

    % Perform bit error rate (BER) calculation
    bitErrorRate = comm.ErrorRate;
    err = bitErrorRate(double(rxData(:)), ...
    fprintf('  \nBit Error Rate (BER):\n');
    fprintf('          Bit Error Rate (BER) = %0.5f.\n',err(1));
    fprintf('          Number of bit errors = %d.\n', err(2));
    fprintf('    Number of transmitted bits = %d.\n\n',length(txData));

    % Recreate image from received data
    fprintf('\nConstructing image from received data.\n');

    str = reshape(sprintf('%d',rxData(1:length(txImage))),8,[]).';
    decdata = uint8(bin2dec(str));

    receivedImage = reshape(decdata,imsize);
    % Plot received image
    if exist('imFig', 'var') && ishandle(imFig) % If Tx figure is open
        figure(imFig); subplot(212);
        figure; subplot(212);
    title(sprintf('Received Image'));
Bit Error Rate (BER):
          Bit Error Rate (BER) = 0.00000.
          Number of bit errors = 0.
    Number of transmitted bits = 194304.

Constructing image from received data.

Things to Try

You can modify the transmitter txGain gain to observe the difference in the EVM and BER after signal reception and processing. You should also be able to see any errors in the displayed, received image. Try changing the scaling factor scale to 0.5. This should improve the quality of the received image by generating more transmit bits. This should also increase the number of transmitted PPDUs.


General tips for troubleshooting SDR hardware and the Communications System Toolbox Support Package for Xilinx Zynq-Based Radio can be found in Common Problems and Fixes.

Selected Bibliography

  1. IEEE Std 802.11™-2012 IEEE Standard for Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Local and metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications.