UPFC (Phasor Model)
This example shows an Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) used to relieve power congestion on a 500/230 kV grid.
Gibert Sybille and Pierre Giroux (Hydro-Quebec)
A UPFC is used to control the power flow in a 500 kV /230 kV transmission system. The system, connected in a loop configuration, consists essentially of five buses (B1 to B5) interconnected through transmission lines (L1, L2, L3) and two 500 kV/230 kV transformer banks Tr1 and Tr2. Two power plants located on the 230-kV system generate a total of 1500 MW which is transmitted to a 500-kV 15000-MVA equivalent and to a 200-MW load connected at bus B3. The plant models include a speed regulator, an excitation system as well as a power system stabilizer (PSS). In normal operation, most of the 1200-MW generation capacity of power plant #2 is exported to the 500-kV equivalent through three 400-MVA transformers connected between buses B4 and B5. We are considering a contingency case where only two transformers out of three are available (Tr2= 2*400 MVA = 800 MVA).
Using the load flow option of the powergui block, the model has been initialized with plants #1 and #2 generating respectively 500 MW and 1000 MW and the UPFC out of service (Bypass breaker closed). The resulting power flow obtained at buses B1 to B5 is indicated by red numbers on the circuit diagram. The load flow shows that most of the power generated by plant #2 is transmitted through the 800-MVA transformer bank (899 MW out of 1000 MW), the rest (101 MW), circulating in the loop. Transformer Tr2 is therefore overloaded by 99 MVA. The example illustrates how the UPFC can relieve this power congestion.
The UPFC located at the right end of line L2 is used to control the active and reactive powers at the 500-kV bus B3, as well as the voltage at bus B_UPFC. It consists of a phasor model of two 100-MVA, IGBT-based, converters (one connected in shunt and one connected in series and both interconnected through a DC bus on the DC side and to the AC power system, through coupling reactors and transformers). Parameters of the UPFC power components are given in the dialog box. The series converter can inject a maximum of 10% of nominal line-to-ground voltage (28.87 kV) in series with line L2. The blue numbers on the diagram show the power flow with the UPFC in service and controlling the B3 active and reactive powers respectively at 687 MW and -27 Mvar.
The UPFC reference active and reactive powers are set in the blocks labeled "Pref(pu)" and "Qref(pu)". Initially the Bypass breaker is closed and the resulting natural power flow at bus B3 is 587 MW and -27 Mvar. The Pref block is programmed with an initial active power of 5.87 pu corresponding to the natural flow. Then, at t=10s, Pref is increased by 1 pu (100 MW), from 5.87 pu to 6.87 pu, while Qref is kept constant at -0.27 pu.
Run the simulation and look on the UPFC Scope how P and Q measured at bus B3 follow the reference values. At t=5 s, when the Bypass breaker is opened the natural power is diverted from the Bypass breaker to the UPFC series branch without noticeable transient. At t=10 s, the power increases at a rate of 1 pu/s. It takes one second for the power to increase to 687 MW. This 100 MW increase of active power at bus B3 is achieved by injecting a series voltage of 0.089 pu with an angle of 94 degrees. This results in an approximate 100 MW decrease in the active power flowing through Tr2 (from 899 MW to 796 MW), which now carries an acceptable load. See the variations of active powers at buses B1 to B5 on the VPQ Lines Scope.