Represent crossover pilot model
Pilot Models
The Crossover Pilot Model block represents the pilot model described in Mathematical Models of Human Pilot Behavior. (For more information, see [1]). This pilot model is a single input, single output (SISO) model that represents some aspects of human behavior when controlling aircraft. When modeling human pilot models, use this block for more accuracy than that provided by the Tustin Pilot Model block. This block is also less accurate than the Precision Pilot Model block.
The Crossover Model takes into account the combined dynamics of the human pilot and the aircraft, using the following form around the crossover frequency:
$${Y}_{p}{Y}_{c}=\frac{{\omega}_{c}{e}^{-\tau s}}{s}.$$
In this equation:
Variable | Description |
---|---|
Y_{p} | Pilot transfer function. |
Y_{c} | Aircraft transfer function. |
ω_{c} | Crossover frequency. |
τ | Transport delay time caused by the pilot neuromuscular system. |
If the dynamics of the aircraft (Y_{c}) change, Y_{p} changes correspondingly. From the options provided in the Type of control parameter, specify the dynamics of the aircraft. The preceding table lists the possible types of control that you can select for the aircraft.
Note: This block is valid only around the crossover frequency. It is not valid for discrete inputs such as a step. |
This block has non-linear behavior. If you want to linearize
the block (for example, with one of the Simulink^{®} linmod
functions), you might need to
change the Pade approximation order. The Crossover Pilot Model block
implementation incorporates the Simulink Transport
Delay block with the Pade order (for linearization) parameter
set to 2
by default. To change this value, use
the set_param
function, for
example:
set_param(gcb,'pade','3')
From the list, select one of the following options to specify the type of dynamics control that you want the pilot to have over for the aircraft.
Option (Controlled Element Transfer Function) | Transfer Function of Controlled Element (Y_{c}) | Transfer Function of Pilot (Y_{p}) | Y_{c}Y_{p} | Notes |
---|---|---|---|---|
Proportional | $${K}_{c}$$ | $$\frac{{K}_{p}{e}^{-\tau s}}{s}$$ | $$\frac{{K}_{c}{K}_{p}{e}^{-\tau s}}{s}$$ | |
Rate or velocity | $$\frac{{K}_{c}}{s}$$ | $${K}_{p}{e}^{-\tau s}$$ | $$\frac{{K}_{c}{K}_{p}{e}^{-\tau s}}{s}$$ | |
Spiral divergence | $$\frac{{K}_{c}}{{T}_{I}s-1}$$ | $${K}_{p}{e}^{-\tau s}$$ | $$\frac{{K}_{c}{K}_{p}{e}^{-\tau s}}{({T}_{I}s-1)}$$ | |
Second order - Short period | $$\frac{{K}_{c}{\omega}_{n}{}^{2}}{{s}^{2}+2\zeta {\omega}_{n}s+{\omega}_{n}^{2}}$$ | $$\frac{{K}_{p}{e}^{-\tau s}}{{T}_{I}s+1}$$ | $$\begin{array}{l}\frac{{K}_{c}{\omega}_{n}{}^{2}}{{s}^{2}+2\zeta {\omega}_{n}s+{\omega}_{n}^{2}}\times \\ \frac{{K}_{p}{e}^{-\tau s}}{{T}_{I}s+1}\end{array}$$ | Short period, with $${\omega}_{n}>1/\tau $$ |
Acceleration (*) | $$\frac{{K}_{c}}{{s}^{2}}$$ | $${K}_{p}s{e}^{-\tau s}$$ | $$\frac{{K}_{c}{K}_{p}{e}^{-\tau s}}{s}$$ | |
Roll attitude (*) | $$\frac{{K}_{c}}{s({T}_{I}s+1)}$$ | $${K}_{p}({T}_{L}s+1){e}^{-\tau s}$$ | $$\frac{{K}_{c}{K}_{p}{e}^{-\tau s}}{s}$$ | With T_{L} ≈ T_{I} |
Unstable short period(*) | $$\frac{{K}_{c}}{({T}_{I1}s+1)({T}_{I2}s-1)}$$ | $${K}_{p}({T}_{L}s+1){e}^{-\tau s}$$ | $$\frac{{K}_{c}{K}_{p}{e}^{-\tau s}}{({T}_{I2}s-1)}$$ | With T_{L}≈ T_{I1} |
Second order - Phugoid(*) | $$\frac{{K}_{c}{\omega}_{n}{}^{2}}{{s}^{2}+2\zeta {\omega}_{n}s+{\omega}_{n}^{2}}$$ | $${K}_{p}({T}_{L}s+1){e}^{-\tau s}$$ | $$\frac{{K}_{c}{K}_{p}{\omega}_{n}^{2}{e}^{-\tau s}}{s}$$ | Phugoid, with $$\begin{array}{l}{\omega}_{n}\ll 1/\tau ,\\ 1/{T}_{L}\approx \zeta {\omega}_{n}\end{array}$$ |
* Indicates that the pilot model includes a Derivative block, which produces a numerical derivative. For this reason, do not send discontinuous (such as a step) or noisy input to the Crossover Pilot Model block. Such inputs can cause large outputs that might render the system unstable.
Variable | Description |
---|---|
K_{c} | Aircraft gain. |
K_{p} | Pilot gain. |
τ | Pilot time delay. |
T_{I} | Lag constant. |
T_{L} | Lead constant. |
ζ | Damping ratio for the aircraft. |
ω_{n} | Natural frequency of the aircraft. |
From the list, select one of the following options to specify which value the block is to calculate:
Crossover frequency
—
The block calculates the crossover frequency value. Selecting this
option disables the Crossover frequency (rad/s) parameter.
Pilot gain
— The
block calculates the pilot gain value. Selecting this option disables
the Pilot gain parameter.
Specifies the gain of the aircraft controlled dynamics.
Specifies the pilot gain.
Specifies a crossover frequency value, rad/s. This value ranges from 1 to 10 rad/s.
Specifies the total pilot time delay, in seconds. This value typically ranges from 0.1 s to 0.2 s.
Specifies the pilot lag constant.
Specifies the pilot lead constant.
Input | Dimension Type | Description |
---|---|---|
First | 1-by-1 | Contains the command for the signal that the pilot model controls. |
Second | 1-by-1 | Contains the signal that the pilot model controls. |
Output | Dimension Type | Description |
---|---|---|
First | 1-by-1 | Contains the command for the aircraft. |
[1] McRuer, D. T., Krendel, E., Mathematical Models of Human Pilot Behavior. Advisory Group on Aerospace Research and Development AGARDograph 188, Jan. 1974.