Binary-Input RS Encoder

Create Reed-Solomon code from binary vector data

Library

Block sublibrary of Error Detection and Correction

Description

The Binary-Input RS Encoder block creates a Reed-Solomon code with message length, K, and codeword length, (N - number of punctures). You specify both N and K directly in the dialog box. The symbols for the code are binary sequences of length M, corresponding to elements of the Galois field GF(2M), where the first bit in each sequence is the most significant bit. Restrictions on M and N are given in Restrictions on the M and the Codeword Length N below.

This block can output shortened codewords when N and K are appropriately specified. To specify output codewords that are shortened by a length S, N and K must be specified in the dialog box as Nfull – S and Kfull – S, where Nfull and Kfull are the N and K of an unshortened code. If S<(Nfull+1)/2, the encoder can automatically determine the value of Nfull and Kfull. However, if S(Nfull+1)/2, Primitive polynomial must be specified in order to properly define the extension field for the code.

The input and output are binary-valued signals that represent messages and codewords, respectively. This block accepts a column vector input signal with a length that is an integer multiple of M*K. This block outputs a column vector with a length that is the same integer multiple of M*(N - number of punctures). The block inherits the output data type from the input. For information about the data types each block port supports, see the Supported Data Type table on this page.

For more information on representing data for Reed-Solomon codes, see the section Integer Format (Reed-Solomon Only) in Communications System Toolbox™ User's Guide.

If the encoder is processing multiple codewords per frame, then the same puncture pattern holds for all codewords.

The default value of M is the smallest integer that is greater than or equal to log2(N+1), that is, ceil(log2(N+1)). You can change the value of M from the default by specifying the primitive polynomial for GF(2M), as described in Specifying the Primitive Polynomial below. If N is less than 2M-1, the block assumes that the code has been shortened by length 2M - 1 - N.

Each M*K input bits represent K integers between 0 and 2M-1. Similarly, each M*(N - number of punctures) output bits represent N integers between 0 and 2M-1. These integers in turn represent elements of the Galois field GF(2M).

An (N,K) Reed-Solomon code can correct up to floor((N-K)/2) symbol errors (not bit errors) in each codeword.

Specifying the Primitive Polynomial

You can specify the primitive polynomial that defines the finite field GF(2M), corresponding to the integers that form messages and codewords. To do so, first select Specify primitive polynomial. Then, set Primitive polynomial to a binary row vector that represents a primitive polynomial over GF(2) of degree M, in descending order of powers. For example, to specify the polynomial x3+x+1, enter the vector [1 0 1 1].

If you do not select Specify primitive polynomial, the block uses the default primitive polynomial of degree M = ceil(log2(N+1)). You can display the default polynomial by entering primpoly(ceil(log2(N+1))) at the MATLAB® prompt.

Restrictions on the M and the Codeword Length N

The restrictions on the degree M of the primitive polynomial and the codeword length N are as follows:

  • If you do not select Specify primitive polynomial, N must lie in the range 7< N ≤ 216–1.

  • If you do select Specify primitive polynomial, N must lie in the range 7 ≤ N ≤ 216–1 and M must lie in the range 3 ≤ M ≤ 16.

Specifying the Generator Polynomial

You can specify the generator polynomial for the Reed-Solomon code. To do so, first select Specify generator polynomial. Then, in the Generator polynomial field, enter an integer row vector whose entries are between 0 and 2M-1. The vector represents a polynomial, in descending order of powers, whose coefficients are elements of GF(2M) represented in integer format. See the section Integer Format (Reed-Solomon Only) for more information about integer format. The generator polynomial must be equal to a polynomial with a factored form

g(x) = (x+Ab)(x+Ab+1)(x+Ab+2)...(x+Ab+N-K-1)

where A is the primitive element of the Galois field over which the input message is defined, and b is a non-negative integer.

If you do not select Specify generator polynomial, the block uses the default generator polynomial, corresponding to b=1, for Reed-Solomon encoding. You can display the default generator polynomial by entering rsgenpoly(N1,K1), where N1=2^M-1 and K1=K+(N1-N), at the MATLAB prompt, if you are using the default primitive polynomial. If the Specify primitive polynomial box is selected, and you specify the primitive polynomial specified as poly, the default generator polynomial is rsgenpoly(N1,K1,poly).

Puncture Codes

The block supports puncturing when you select the Puncture code parameter. This enables the Puncture vector parameter, which takes in a binary vector to specify the puncturing pattern. For a puncture vector, 1 represents that the data symbol passes unaltered, and 0 represents that the data symbol gets punctured, or removed, from the data stream. This convention is carried for both the encoder and the decoder. For more information, see Shortening, Puncturing, and Erasures.

Examples

Suppose M = 3, N = 23-1 = 7, and K = 5. Then a message is a binary vector of length 15 that represents 5 three-bit integers. A corresponding codeword is a binary vector of length 21 that represents 7 three-bit integers. The following figure shows the codeword that would result from a particular message word. The integer format equivalents illustrate that the highest order bit is at the left.

Dialog Box

Codeword length N

The codeword length. The output has vector length NC*M*(N - NP), where NC is the number of codewords being output, and NP is the number of punctures per codeword.

Message length K

The message length. The input has vector length NM*M*K, where NM is the number of messages per frame being input.

Specify primitive polynomial

Selecting this check box enables the field Primitive polynomial.

Primitive polynomial

This field is available only when Specify primitive polynomial is selected.

Binary row vector representing the primitive polynomial in descending order of powers.

Specify generator polynomial

Selecting this check box enables the field Generator polynomial.

Generator polynomial

This field is available only when Specify generator polynomial is selected.

Integer row vector, whose entries are in the range from 0 to 2M-1, representing the generator polynomial in descending order of powers.

Puncture code

Selecting this check box enables the field Puncture vector.

Puncture vector

This field is available only when Puncture code is selected.

A column vector of length N-K. A value of 1 in the Puncture vector corresponds to an M-bit symbol that is not punctured, and a 0 corresponds to an M-bit symbol that is punctured.

The default value is [ones(2,1); zeros(2,1)].

Output data type

The output type of the block can be specified as Same as input, boolean, or double. By default, the block sets this to Same as input.

Supported Data Type

PortSupported Data Types
In
  • Double-precision floating point

  • Single-precision floating point

  • Boolean

  • 8-, 16-, and 32-bit signed integers

  • 8-, 16-, and 32-bit unsigned integers

  • 1-bit unsigned integer (ufix(1))

Out
  • Double-precision floating point

  • Single-precision floating point

  • Boolean

  • 8-, 16-, and 32-bit signed integers

  • 8-, 16-, and 32-bit unsigned integers

  • 1-bit unsigned integer (ufix(1))

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