Generate CRC bits according to generator polynomial and append to input data frames
CRC sublibrary of Error Correction and Detection
The General CRC Generator block generates cyclic redundancy code (CRC) bits for each input data frame and appends them to the frame. This block accepts a binary column vector input signal.
You specify the generator polynomial for the CRC algorithm using the Generator polynomial parameter. This block is general in the sense that the degree of the polynomial does not need to be a power of two. You represent the polynomial in one of these ways:
As a polynomial string such
'x^3 + x^2 + 1'.
As a binary row vector containing the coefficients
in descending order of powers. For example,
[1 1 0 1] represents
the polynomial x3 + x2 +
As an integer row vector containing the powers of
nonzero terms in the polynomial, in descending order. For example,
2 0] represents the polynomial x3 + x2 +
You specify the initial state of the internal shift register
by the Initial states parameter. The Initial
states parameter is either a scalar or a binary row vector
of length equal to the degree of the generator polynomial. A scalar
value is expanded to a row vector of length equal to the degree of
the generator polynomial. For example, the default initial state of
expanded to a row vector of all zeros.
You specify the number of checksums that the block calculates for each input frame by the Checksums per frame parameter. The Checksums per frame value must evenly divide the size of the input frame. If the value of Checksums per frame is k, the block does the following:
Divides each input frame into k subframes of equal size
Prefixes the Initial states vector to each of the k subframes
Applies the CRC algorithm to each augmented subframe
Appends the resulting checksums at the end of each subframe
Outputs concatenated subframes
If the size of the input frame is m and the degree of the generator polynomial is r, the output frame has size m + k * r.
This block supports
types. The block inherits the output data type from the input signal.
Suppose the size of the input frame is 10, the degree of the
generator polynomial is 3, Initial states is
and Checksums per frame is
The block divides each input frame into two subframes of size 5 and
appends a checksum of size 3 to each subframe, as shown below. The
initial states are not shown in this example, because an initial state
 does not affect the output of the CRC algorithm.
The output frame then has size 5 + 3 + 5 + 3 = 16.
This example clarifies the operation of the General
CRC Generator block by comparing the generated CRC bits from
the library block with those generated from primitive Simulink® blocks.
To open the model, enter
the MATLAB® command line.
For a known input message with a length of 6 bits, the model generates CRC bits for a generator polynomial, , and a specific initial state of the register.
You can experiment with different initial states by changing the value of Initial states prior to running the simulation. For all values, the comparison (generated CRC bits from the library block with those generated from primitive Simulink blocks) holds true.
Using the General CRC Generator block allows you to easily specify the generator polynomial (especially for higher order polynomials).
The General CRC Generator block has one input port and one output port. Both ports support binary column vector signals.
A string, a binary row vector in descending order of powers, or an integer row vector in descending order of powers.
Binary scalar or a binary row vector of length equal to the degree of the generator polynomial, specifying the initial state of the internal shift register.
When you select this check box, the object uses the direct algorithm for CRC checksum calculations. When you clear this check box, the object uses the non-direct algorithm for CRC checksum calculations.
When you select this check box, the block flips the input data on a bytewise basis prior to entering the data into the shift register. For this application, the input frame length (and any current input frame length for variable-size signals) divided by the value for the Checksums per frame parameter must be a multiple of eight. When you clear this check box, the block does not flip the input data.
When you select this check box, the block flips the CRC checksums around their centers after the input data are completely through the shift register. When you clear this check box, the block does not flip the CRC checksums.
Specify the value with which the CRC checksum is to be XORed
as a binary scalar or vector. The block applies the XOR operation
just prior to appending the input data. The vector length is the degree
of the generator polynomial that you specify in the Generator
polynomial parameter. When you specify the final XOR value
as a scalar, the block expands the value to a row vector with a length
equal to the degree of the generator polynomial. The default value
of this parameter is
0, which is equivalent to
no XOR operation.
Specify the number of checksums the block calculates for each input frame. This value must be a positive integer. The input frame length (and any current input frame length for variable-size signals) must be a multiple of this parameter value.
For a description of the CRC algorithm as implemented by this block, see Cyclic Redundancy Check Codes in Communications System Toolbox™ User's Guide.
 Sklar, Bernard, Digital Communications: Fundamentals and Applications. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1988.
 Wicker, Stephen B., Error Control Systems for Digital Communication and Storage, Upper Saddle River, N.J., Prentice Hall, 1995.