Convolutionally encode binary data and map using arbitrary constellation
TCM, in Digital Baseband sublibrary of Modulation
The General TCM Encoder block implements trellis-coded modulation (TCM) by convolutionally encoding the binary input signal and mapping the result to an arbitrary signal constellation. The Signal constellation parameter lists the signal constellation points in set-partitioned order. This parameter is a complex vector with a length, M, equal to the number of possible output symbols from the convolutional encoder. (That is, log2M is equal to n for a rate k/n convolutional code.)
If the convolutional encoder represents a rate k/n code, then the General TCM Encoder block's input must be a binary column vector with a length of L*k for some positive integer L.
This block accepts a binary-valued input signal. The output signal is a complex column vector of length L. For information about the data types each block port supports, see Supported Data Types.
To define the convolutional encoder, use the Trellis structure parameter. This parameter is a MATLAB® structure whose format is described in Trellis Description of a Convolutional Code. You can use this parameter field in two ways:
If you want to specify the encoder using its constraint
length, generator polynomials, and possibly feedback connection polynomials,
then use a
within the Trellis structure field. For example,
to use an encoder with a constraint length of 7, code generator polynomials
of 171 and 133 (in octal numbers), and a feedback connection of 171
(in octal), set the Trellis structure parameter
If you have a variable in the MATLAB workspace that contains the trellis structure, then enter its name as the Trellis structure parameter. This way is faster because it causes Simulink® software to spend less time updating the diagram at the beginning of each simulation, compared to the usage in the previous bulleted item.
The encoder registers begin in the all-zeros state. You can
configure the encoder so that it resets its registers to the all-zeros
state during the course of the simulation. To do this, set the
mode to Reset on nonzero input via port.
The block then opens a second input port, labeled
The signal at the
Rst port is a scalar signal.
When it is nonzero, the encoder resets before processing the data
at the first input port.
The trellis-coded modulation technique partitions the constellation into subsets called cosets so as to maximize the minimum distance between pairs of points in each coset.
When you set the Signal constellation parameter, you must ensure that the constellation vector is already in set-partitioned order. Otherwise, the block might produce unexpected or suboptimal results.
As an example, the diagram below shows one way to devise a set-partitioned order for the points for an 8-PSK signal constellation. The figure at the top of the tree is the entire 8-PSK signal constellation, while the eight figures at the bottom of the tree contain one constellation point each. Each level of the tree corresponds to a different bit in a binary sequence (b3,b2,b1), while each branch in a given level of the tree corresponds to a particular value for that bit. Listing the constellation points using the sequence at the bottom of the tree leads to the vector
exp(2*pi*j*[0 4 2 6 1 5 3 7]/8)
which is a valid value for the Signal constellation parameter in this block.
Coding gains of 3 to 6 decibels, relative to the uncoded case can be achieved in the presence of AWGN with multiphase trellis codes .
MATLAB structure that contains the trellis description of the convolutional encoder.
Continuous mode (default setting),
the block retains the encoder states at the end of each frame, for
use with the next frame.
Truncated (reset every frame) mode,
the block treats each frame independently. I.e., the encoder states
are reset to all-zeros state at the start of each frame.
Terminate trellis by appending bits mode,
the block treats each frame independently. For each input frame, extra
bits are used to set the encoder states to all-zeros state at the
end of the frame. The output length is given by , where x is
the number of input bits, and (or,
in the case of multiple constraint lengths, s =
The block supports this mode for column vector input signals.
Reset on nonzero input via port mode,
the block has an additional input port, labeled
Rst input is nonzero, the encoder resets
to the all-zeros state.
A complex vector that lists the points in the signal constellation in set-partitioned order.
The output type of the block can be specified as a
By default, the block sets this to
|Port||Supported Data Types|
 Biglieri, E., D. Divsalar, P. J. McLane, and M. K. Simon, Introduction to Trellis-Coded Modulation with Applications, New York, Macmillan, 1991.
 Proakis, John G., Digital Communications, Fourth edition, New York, McGraw-Hill, 2001.
 Ungerboeck, G., “Channel Coding with Multilevel/Phase Signals”, IEEE Trans. on Information Theory, Vol IT28, Jan. 1982, pp. 55–67.