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This example shows how to design low pass FIR filters. We will use filter design objects (fdesign) throughout this example.

FIR filters are widely used due to the powerful design algorithms that exist for them, their inherent stability when implemented in non-recursive form, the ease with which one can attain linear phase, their simple extensibility to multirate cases, and the ample hardware support that exists for them among other reasons. This example showcases functionality in the DSP System Toolbox™ for the design of low pass FIR filters with a variety of characteristics. Many of the concepts presented here can be extended to other responses such as highpass, bandpass, etc.

**A Simple Low Pass Filter Design**

An ideal low pass filter requires an infinite impulse response. Truncating (or windowing) the impulse response results in the so-called window method of FIR filter design. Consider a simple design of a low pass filter with a cutoff frequency of 0.4*pi radians per sample

Fc = 0.4; N = 100; % FIR filter order Hf = fdesign.lowpass('N,Fc',N,Fc);

We can design this low pass filter using the window method. For example, we can use a Hamming window or a Dolph-Chebyshev window:

Hd1 = design(Hf,'window','window',@hamming,'SystemObject',true); Hd2 = design(Hf,'window','window',{@chebwin,50},'SystemObject',true); hfvt = fvtool(Hd1,Hd2,'Color','White'); legend(hfvt,'Hamming window design','Dolph-Chebyshev window design')

The choice of filter order was arbitrary. Since ideally the order should be infinite, in general, a larger order results in a better approximation to ideal at the expense of a more costly implementation. For instance, with a Dolph-Chebyshev window, we can decrease the transition region by increasing the filter order:

Hf.FilterOrder = 200; Hd3 = design(Hf,'window','window',{@chebwin,50},'SystemObject',true); hfvt = fvtool(Hd2,Hd3,'Color','White'); legend(hfvt,'Dolph-Chebyshev window design. Order = 100',... 'Dolph-Chebyshev window design. Order = 200')

**Minimum-Order Low Pass Filter Design**

In order to determine a suitable filter order, it is necessary to specify the amount of passband ripple and stopband attenuation that will be tolerated. It is also necessary to specify the width of the transition region around the ideal cutoff frequency. The latter is done by setting the passband edge frequency and the stopband edge frequency. The difference between the two determines the transition width.

Fp = 0.38; Fst = 0.42; % Fc = (Fp+Fst)/2; Transition Width = Fst - Fp Ap = 0.06; Ast = 60; setspecs(Hf,'Fp,Fst,Ap,Ast',Fp,Fst,Ap,Ast);

We can still use the window method, along with a Kaiser window, to design the low pass filter.

Hd4 = design(Hf,'kaiserwin','SystemObject',true); measure(Hd4)

ans = Sample Rate : N/A (normalized frequency) Passband Edge : 0.38 3-dB Point : 0.39539 6-dB Point : 0.4 Stopband Edge : 0.42 Passband Ripple : 0.016058 dB Stopband Atten. : 60.092 dB Transition Width : 0.04

One thing to note is that the transition width as specified is centered around the cutoff frequency of 0.4 pi. This will become the point at which the gain of the low pass filter is half the passband gain (or the point at which the filter reaches 6 dB of attenuation).

The Kaiser window design is not an optimal design and as a result the filter order required to meet the specifications using this method is larger than it needs to be. Equiripple designs result in the low pass filter with the smallest possible order to meet a set of specifications.

Hd5 = design(Hf,'equiripple','SystemObject',true); hfvt = fvtool(Hd4,Hd5,'Color','White'); legend(hfvt,'Kaiser window design','Equiripple design')

In this case, 146 coefficients are needed by the equiripple design while 183 are needed by the Kaiser window design.

**Controlling the Filter order and Passband Ripple/Stopband Attenuation**

When targeting custom hardware, it is common to find cases where the number of coefficients is constrained to a set number. In these cases, minimum-order designs are not useful because there is no control over the resulting filter order. As an example, suppose that only 101 coefficients could be used and the passband ripple/stopband attenuation specifications need to be met. We can still use equiripple designs for these specifications. However, we lose control over the transition width which will increase. This is the price to pay for reducing the order while maintaining the passband ripple/stopband attenuation specifications.

N = 100; % Order = 100 -> 101 coefficients setspecs(Hf,'N,Fc,Ap,Ast',N,Fc,Ap,Ast); Hd6 = design(Hf,'equiripple','SystemObject',true); measure(Hd6) hfvt = fvtool(Hd5,Hd6,'Color','White'); legend(hfvt,... 'Equiripple design, 146 coefficients',... 'Equiripple design, 101 coefficients')

ans = Sample Rate : N/A (normalized frequency) Passband Edge : 0.37316 3-dB Point : 0.39285 6-dB Point : 0.4 Stopband Edge : 0.43134 Passband Ripple : 0.06 dB Stopband Atten. : 60 dB Transition Width : 0.058177

Notice that the transition width has increased by almost 50%. This is not surprising given the almost 50% difference between 101 coefficients and 146 coefficients.

**Controlling the Transition Region Width**

Another option when the number of coefficients is set is to maintain the transition width at the expense of control over the passband ripple/stopband attenuation.

setspecs(Hf,'N,Fp,Fst',N,Fp,Fst); Hd7 = design(Hf,'equiripple','SystemObject',true); measure(Hd7) hfvt = fvtool(Hd5,Hd7,'Color','White'); legend(hfvt,... 'Equiripple design, 146 coefficients',... 'Equiripple design, 101 coefficients')

ans = Sample Rate : N/A (normalized frequency) Passband Edge : 0.38 3-dB Point : 0.39407 6-dB Point : 0.4 Stopband Edge : 0.42 Passband Ripple : 0.1651 dB Stopband Atten. : 40.4369 dB Transition Width : 0.04

Note that in this case, the differences between using 146 coefficients and using 101 coefficients is reflected in a larger passband ripple and a smaller stopband attenuation.

It is possible to increase the attenuation in the stopband while keeping the same filter order and transition width by the use of weights. Weights are a way of specifying the relative importance of the passband ripple versus the stopband attenuation. By default, passband and stopband are equally weighted (a weight of one is assigned to each). If we increase the stopband weight, we can increase the stopband attenuation at the expense of increasing the stopband ripple as well.

Hd8 = design(Hf,'equiripple','Wstop',5,'SystemObject',true); measure(Hd8) hfvt = fvtool(Hd7,Hd8,'Color','White'); legend(hfvt,... 'Passband weight = 1; Stopband weight = 1',... 'Passband weight = 1, Stopband weight = 5')

ans = Sample Rate : N/A (normalized frequency) Passband Edge : 0.38 3-dB Point : 0.39143 6-dB Point : 0.39722 Stopband Edge : 0.42 Passband Ripple : 0.34529 dB Stopband Atten. : 48.0068 dB Transition Width : 0.04

Another possibility is to specify the exact stopband attenuation desired and lose control over the passband ripple. This is a powerful and very desirable specification. One has control over most parameters of interest.

setspecs(Hf,'N,Fp,Fst,Ast',N,Fp,Fst,Ast); Hd9 = design(Hf,'equiripple','SystemObject',true); hfvt = fvtool(Hd8,Hd9,'Color','White'); legend(hfvt,... 'Equiripple design using weights',... 'Equiripple design constraining the stopband')

**Optimal Non-Equiripple Low Pass Filters**

Equiripple designs achieve optimality by distributing the deviation from the ideal response uniformly. This has the advantage of minimizing the maximum deviation (ripple). However, the overall deviation, measured in terms of its energy tends to be large. This may not always be desirable. When low pass filtering a signal, this implies that remnant energy of the signal in the stopband may be relatively large. When this is a concern, least-squares methods provide optimal designs that minimize the energy in the stopband.

setspecs(Hf,'N,Fp,Fst',N,Fp,Fst); Hd10 = design(Hf,'firls','SystemObject',true); hfvt = fvtool(Hd7,Hd10,'Color','White'); legend(hfvt,'Equiripple design','Least-squares design')

Notice how the attenuation in the stopband increases with frequency for the least-squares designs while it remains constant for the equiripple design. The increased attenuation in the least-squares case minimizes the energy in that band of the signal to be filtered.

**Equiripple Designs with Increasing Stopband Attenuation**

An often undesirable effect of least-squares designs is that the ripple in the passband region close to the passband edge tends to be large. For low pass filters in general, it is desirable that passband frequencies of a signal to be filtered are affected as little as possible. To this extent, an equiripple passband is generally preferable. If it is still desirable to have an increasing attenuation in the stopband, we can use design options for equiripple designs to achieve this.

Hd11 = design(Hf,'equiripple','StopbandShape','1/f','StopbandDecay',4,... 'SystemObject',true); hfvt = fvtool(Hd10,Hd11,'Color','White'); legend(hfvt,'Least-squares design',... 'Equiripple design with stopband decaying as (1/f)^4')

Notice that the stopbands are quite similar. However the equiripple design has a significantly smaller passband ripple,

mls = measure(Hd10); meq = measure(Hd11); mls.Apass meq.Apass

ans = 0.3504 ans = 0.1867

Filters with a stopband that decays as (1/f)^M will decay at 6M dB per octave. Another way of shaping the stopband is using a linear decay. For example given an approximate attenuation of 38 dB at 0.4*pi, if an attenuation of 70 dB is desired at pi, and a linear decay is to be used, the slope of the line is given by (70-38)/(1-0.4) = 53.333. Such a design can be achieved from:

Hd12 = design(Hf,'equiripple','StopbandShape','linear',... 'StopbandDecay',53.333,'SystemObject',true); hfvt = fvtool(Hd11,Hd12,'Color','White'); legend(hfvt,... 'Equiripple design with stopband decaying as (1/f)^4',... 'Equiripple design with stopband decaying linearly and a slope of 53.333')

Yet another possibility is to use an arbitrary magnitude specification and select two bands (one for the passband and one for the stopband). Then, by using weights for the second band, it is possible to increase the attenuation throughout the band. For more information on this and other arbitrary magnitude designs see Arbitrary Magnitude Filter Design.

N = 100; B = 2; % Number of bands F = [0 .38 .42:.02:1]; A = [1 1 zeros(1,length(F)-2)]; W = linspace(1,100,length(F)-2); Harb = fdesign.arbmag('N,B,F,A',N,B,F(1:2),A(1:2),F(3:end),A(3:end)); Ha = design(Harb,'equiripple','B2Weights',W,'SystemObject',true); hfvt = fvtool(Ha,'Color','White');

**Minimum-Phase Low Pass Filter Design**

So far, we have only considered linear-phase designs. Linear phase is desirable in many applications. Nevertheless, if linear phase is not a requirement, minimum-phase designs can provide significant improvements over linear phase counterparts. For instance, returning to the minimum order case, a minimum-phase/minimum-order design for the same specifications can be computed with:

setspecs(Hf,'Fp,Fst,Ap,Ast',Fp,Fst,Ap,Ast); Hd13 = design(Hf,'equiripple','minphase',true,'SystemObject',true); hfvt = fvtool(Hd5,Hd13,'Color','White'); legend(hfvt,... 'Linear-phase equiripple design',... 'Minimum-phase equiripple design')

Notice that the number of coefficients has been reduced from 146 to 117. As a second example, consider the design with a stopband decaying in linear fashion. Notice the increased stopband attenuation. The passband ripple is also significantly smaller.

Hd14 = design(Hf,'equiripple','StopbandShape','linear',... 'StopbandDecay',53.333,'minphase',true,'SystemObject',true); hfvt = fvtool(Hd12,Hd14,'Color','White'); legend(hfvt,... 'Linear-phase equiripple design with linearly decaying stopband',... 'Minimum-phase equiripple design with linearly decaying stopband')

**Minimum-Order Low Pass Filter Design Using Multistage Techniques**

A different approach to minimizing the number of coefficients that does not involve minimum-phase designs is to use multistage techniques. Here we show an interpolated FIR (IFIR) approach. For more information on this, see Efficient Narrow Transition-Band FIR Filter Design.

**Low Pass Filter Design for Multirate Applications**

Low pass filters are extensively used in the design of decimators and interpolators. See Design of Decimators/Interpolators for more information on this and Multistage Design Of Decimators/Interpolators for multistage techniques that result in very efficient implementations.

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