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FIR Rate Conversion HDL Optimized

Upsample, filter, and downsample input signals—optimized for HDL code generation

Library

Filtering/Multirate Filters

dspmlti4

Description

The FIR Rate Conversion HDL Optimized block upsamples, filters, and downsamples input signals. It is optimized for HDL code generation and operates on one sample of each channel at a time. The block implements an efficient polyphase architecture to avoid unnecessary arithmetic operations and high intermediate sample rates.

The block upsamples by an integer factor of L, applies an FIR filter, and downsamples by an integer factor of M.

The block has input and output control ports for pacing the flow of samples. In the default configuration, the block uses validIn and validOut control signals. For additional flow control, you can enable a ready output signal and a request input signal.

The ready output port indicates that the block can accept a new input data sample on the next time step. When LM, you can use the ready signal to achieve continuous output data samples. If you apply a new input sample after each time the block returns ready = true, the block returns a data output sample with validOut = true on every time step.

When you do not enable the ready port, you can apply a valid data sample only every ceil(L/M) time steps. For example:

  • L/M = 4/5 — You can apply a new input sample on every time step.

  • L/M = 3/2 — You can apply a new input sample on every other time step.

When you enable the request input port, the block returns the next output sample when request is true and a valid output sample is available. When you do not use request , the block returns output samples when they are available. When no new data is available, the block returns validOut = false.

You can connect the request input port to the ready output port of a downstream block.

Signal Attributes

This icon shows all the optional ports of the FIR Rate Conversion HDL Optimized block.

PortDirectionDescriptionData Type
dataInInputData sample, specified as a scalar, or as a row vector in which each element represents an independent channel. The block accepts real or complex data.
  • fixdt()

  • uint8/16/32, int8/16/32

  • double and single are allowed for simulation but not for HDL code generation.

validInInputCapture the value of dataIn, when validIn is true. You can apply a valid data sample every ceil(L/M) time steps. boolean
requestInput (Optional)Request for a new output sample.boolean
dataOutOutputResampled and filtered data sample, returned as a scalar, or as a vector in which each element represents an independent channel.Same as dataIn
validOutOutputQualification of the dataOut value. When validOut is true, dataOut is valid.boolean
readyOutput (Optional)Indicates that the block is ready for a new input sample, when ready is true.boolean

Parameters

Main

Interpolation factor

Upsampling factor, L, specified as a scalar integer. The default is 3.

Decimation factor

Downsampling factor, M, specified as a scalar integer. The default is 2.

FIR filter coefficients

Filter coefficients, specified as a vector in descending powers of z-1.

You can generate filter coefficients using the Signal Processing Toolbox™ filter design functions (such as fir1). Design a lowpass filter with normalized cutoff frequency no greater than min(1/L,1/M). The block initializes internal filter states to zero. The default coefficients are firpm(70,[0 .28 .32 1],[1 1 0 0]).

Enable ready output port

Select this check box to enable a port that indicates when the block is able, on the next time step, to accept a new input data sample.

Enable request input port

Select this check box to enable a port that requests the block return an output sample. When the request port is true, and there is an output sample available, the block returns a new output sample and sets validOut to true. When request is false, or there is no new sample available, the block sets validOut to false.

Data Types

Rounding mode

The default rounding method for internal fixed point calculations is Floor. Simplest rounding mode is not supported.

Saturate on integer overflow

The default Overflow Handling for internal fixed point calculations is wrap.

Coefficients Data Type

Data type of the FIR filter coefficients, specified as a fixdt(s,wl,fl) object with signedness, word length, and fractional length properties. The default is fixdt(1,16,16).

Output Data Type

Data type of the output data samples. You can choose Inherit: Inherit via internal rule, Inherit: Full precision, or specify a fixdt(s,wl,fl) object. The default is Inherit: Same word length as input.

Examples

expand all

Convert a signal from 48 kHz to 32 kHz using the FIR Rate Conversion HDL Optimized block.

The source is a cosine input signal, sampled at 48kHz. The model passes a new data sample into the block on every time step by holding validIn = true. After resampling, the validOut signal is true on only 2/3 of the time steps.

Open the Model

Configure the Model

Define the data rate parameters in the InitFcn callback.

Configure the FIR Rate Conversion HDL Optimized block. Use the default interpolation factor of 2 and decimation factor of 3. Use the firmpm function to design an equiripple FIR filter. In the Data Types group, set the Coefficients data type to fixdt(1,16,15) to accommodate the filter you designed.

Run the Model and Display Results

Run the model. Use the Logic Analyzer to view the input and output signals of the block. The blue icon in the model indicates streamed signals. Launch the Logic Analyzer from the model's toolbar.

In the Logic Analyzer, note the pattern of validIn and the resulting validOut signal.

Generate HDL Code

To generate HDL code from the FIR Rate Converter HDL Optimized block, right-click the block and select Create Subsystem from Selection. Then right-click the subsystem and select HDL Code > Generate HDL Code for Subsystem.

Convert a signal from 40 MHz to 100 MHz using the FIR Rate Converter HDL Optimized block. Uses the optional request input signal and ready output signal to control the data rate.

  • To represent a system clock rate of 200MHz, the model connects a repeating true-false signal to the request port. This configuration generates output samples at 100 MHz, i.e. every second time step. Alternatively, you can connect this port to the ready port of a downstream block.

  • When the block can accept a new input sample on the next time step, it sets the ready output signal to true. The model connects this signal to a waveform source that generates one sample at a time.

Open the Model

Configure the Model

Define the data rate parameters in the InitFcn callback.

Configure the FIR Rate Conversion HDL Optimized block. Use an interpolation factor of 5 and a decimation factor of 2. Use the firmpm function to design an equiripple FIR filter. Select both check boxes to enable the ready and request ports. % In the Data Types group, set the Coefficients data type to fixdt(1,16,15) to accommodate your filter design.

Run the Model and Display Results

Run the model. Use the Logic Analyzer to view the input and output signals of the block. The blue icon in the model indicates streamed signals. Launch the Logic Analyzer from the model's toolbar.

In the Logic Analyzer, note the pattern of request and the resulting validOut signal, and the pattern of ready and the resulting validIn signal.

Generate HDL Code

To generate HDL code from the FIR Rate Converter HDL Optimized block, right-click the block and select Create Subsystem from Selection. Then right-click the subsystem and select HDL Code > Generate HDL Code for Subsystem.

Algorithm

The FIR Rate Conversion HDL Optimized block implements a fully parallel polyphase filter architecture. The diagram shows where the block casts the data types, according to your configuration.

Delay

The block models HDL pipeline latency, so there is an initial delay of several time steps before the object returns the first valid output sample. The latency depends on the filter coefficients and the resampling factors. To determine the latency from first sample in to first sample out, observe the validOut signal.

Performance

For a sample of design performance, generate HDL for the block as configured in the Control Data Rate Using the Ready and Request Ports example. The example filter resamples at 5/2, and uses a symmetric 71-tap filter. The input samples and filter coefficients are 16 bits wide. The design was targeted to a Xilinx® Virtex®-6 FPGA, using Xilinx ISE synthesis and place and route tools.

After place and route, the design achieves 535 MHz clock frequency. It uses these resources.

LUT592
FFS979

Xilinx LogiCORE® DSP48

15
Block RAM (16K)0

Performance of the synthesized HDL code varies depending on your filter coefficients, FPGA target, and synthesis options.

Introduced in R2015b

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