Encode each input value by associating it with index value of quantization region
Quantizers
dspquant2
The Scalar Quantizer Encoder block maps each input value to a quantization region by comparing the input value to the quantizer boundary points defined in the Boundary points parameter. The block outputs the zerobased index of the associated region.
You can select how you want to enter the Boundary
points using the Source of quantizer parameters.
When you select Specify via dialog
, type
the boundary points into the block parameters dialog box. When you
select Input port
, port B appears on the
block. The block uses the input to port B as the Boundary
points parameter.
Use the Boundary points parameter to specify the boundary points for your quantizer. These values are used to break up the set of input numbers into regions. Each region is specified by an index number.
Let N
be the number of quantization regions.
When the codebook is defined as [c1 c2 c3 ... cN]
,
and the Boundary points parameter is defined
as [p0 p1 p2 p3 ... pN]
, then p0<c1<p1<c2
... p(N1)<cN<pN
for a regular quantizer. When your
quantizer is bounded, from the Partitioning list,
select Bounded
. You need to specify N+1 boundary
points, or [p0 p1 p2 p3 ... pN]
. When your quantizer
is unbounded, from the Partitioning list,
select Unbounded
. You need to specify N1
boundary points, or[p1 p2 p3 ... p(N1)]
; the block
sets p0
equal to inf
and pN
equal
to inf
.
The block uses the Partitioning parameter
to interpret the boundary points you enter. For instance, to create
a bounded quantizer, from the Partitioning list,
select Bounded
and enter the following
boundary points:
[0 0.5 3.7 5.8 6.0 11]
The block assigns any input values between 0 and 0.5 to index 0, input values between 0.5 and 3.7 to index 1, and so on. The block assigns any values that are less than 0 to index 0, the lowest index value. The block assigns any values that are greater than 11 to index 4, the highest index value.
To create an unbounded quantizer, from the Partitioning list,
select Unbounded
and enter the following
boundary points:
[0 0.5 3.7 5.8 6.0 11]
The block assigns any input values between 0 and 0.5 to index 1, input values between 0.5 and 3.7 to index 2, and so on. The block assigns any input values less than 0 to index 0 and any values greater than 11 to index 6.
The Searching method parameter determines
how the appropriate quantizer index is found. When you select Linear
,
the Scalar Quantizer Encoder block compares the input value to the
first region defined by the first two boundary points. When the input
value does not fall within this region, the block then compares the
input value to the next region. This process continues until the input
value is determined to be within a region and is associated with the
appropriate index value. The computational cost of this process is
of the order P, where P is the number of boundary points.
When you select Binary
for the Searching
method, the block compares the input value to the middle
value of the boundary points vector. When the input value is larger
than this boundary point, the block discards the boundary points that
are lower than this middle value. The block then compares the input
value to the middle boundary point of the new range, defined by the
remaining boundary points. This process continues until the input
value is associated with the appropriate index value. The computational
cost of this process is of the order log_{2}P,
where P is the number of boundary points. In most
cases, the Binary
option is faster than
the Linear
option.
When an input value is the same as a boundary point, the Tiebreaking
rule parameter determines the region to which the value
is assigned. When you want the input value to be assigned to the lower
indexed region, select Choose the lower index
.
To assign the input value with the higher indexed region, select Choose
the higher index
.
Select the Output codeword check box to output the codeword values that correspond to each index value at port Q(U).
Select the Output the quantization error check box to output the quantization error for each input value from the Err port on this block. The quantization error is the difference between the input value and the quantized output value.
When you select either the Output codeword check
box or the Output quantization error check box,
you must also enter your codebook values. If, from the Source
of quantizer parameters list, you choose Specify
via dialog
, use the Codebook parameter
to enter a vector of quantized output values that correspond to each
region. If, from the Source of quantizer parameters list,
you choose Input port
, use input port C
to specify your codebook values.
If, for the Partitioning parameter, you
select Bounded
, the Output clipping
status check box and the Action for out of range
input parameter appear. When you select the Output
clipping status check box, port S appears on the block.
Any time an input value is outside the range defined by the Boundary
points parameter, the block outputs a 1 at the S port.
When the value is inside the range, the blocks outputs a 0.
You can use the Action for out of range input parameter
to determine the block's behavior when an input value is outside the
range defined by the Boundary points parameter.
Suppose the boundary points for a bounded quantizer are defined as [p0
p1 p2 p3 ... pN]
and the possible index values are defined
as [i0 i1 i2 ... i(N1)]
, where i0=0
and i0<i1<i2<...<i(N1)
.
When you want any input value less than p0
to be
assigned to index value i0
and any input values
greater than pN
to be assigned to index value i(N1)
,
select Clip
. When you want to be warned when clipping
occurs, select Clip and warn
. When you
want the simulation to stop and the block to display an error when
the index values are out of range, select Error
.
The Scalar Quantizer Encoder block accepts real floatingpoint and fixedpoint inputs. For more information on the data types accepted by each port, see Data Type Support or Supported Data Types.
The input data values, boundary points, and codebook values
can be input to the block at ports U, B, and C, respectively. The
data type of the inputs can be double
, single
,
or Fixedpoint.
The outputs of the block can be the index values, the quantized
output values, the quantization error, and the clipping status. Use
the Index output data type parameter to specify
the data type of the index output from the block at port I. You can
choose int8
, uint8
, int16
, uint16
, int32
,
or uint32
. The data type of the quantized
output and the quantization error can be double
, single
,
or Fixedpoint. The clipping status values output at port S are Boolean
values.
Note The input data, boundary points, codebook values, quantized output values, and the quantization error must have the same data type whenever they are present. 
The Main pane of the Scalar Quantizer Encoder block dialog appears as follows.
Choose Specify via dialog
to enter
the boundary points and codebook values using the block parameters
dialog box. Select Input port
to specify
the parameters using the block's input ports. Input the boundary points
and codebook values using ports B and C, respectively.
When your quantizer is bounded, select Bounded
.
When your quantizer is unbounded, select Unbounded
.
Enter a vector of values that represent the boundary points
of the quantizer regions. This parameter is visible when you select Specify
via dialog
from the Source of quantizer
parameters list. Tunable (Simulink).
When you select Linear
, the block
finds the region in which the input value is located using a linear
search. When you select Binary
, the block
finds the region in which the input value is located using a binary
search.
Set this parameter to determine the behavior of the block when
the input value is the same as the boundary point. When you select Choose
the lower index
, the input value is assigned to lower
indexed region. When you select Choose the higher index
,
the value is assigned to the higher indexed region.
Select this check box to output the codeword values that correspond to each index value at port Q(U).
Select this check box to output the quantization error for each input value at port Err.
Enter a vector of quantized output values that correspond to
each index value. If, for the Partitioning parameter,
you select Bounded
and your boundary points
vector has length N, then you must specify a codebook of length N1.
If, for the Partitioning parameter, you select Unbounded
and
your boundary points vector has length N, then you must specify a
codebook of length N+1.
This parameter is visible when you select Specify
via dialog
from the Source of quantizer parameters list
and you select either the Output codeword or Output
quantization error check box. Tunable (Simulink).
When you select this check box, port S appears on the block.
Any time an input value is outside the range defined by the Boundary
points parameter, the block outputs a 1 at this port. When
the value is inside the range, the block outputs a 0. This parameter
is visible when you select Bounded
from
the Partitioning list.
Use this parameter to determine the behavior of the block when
an input value is outside the range defined by the Boundary
points parameter. Suppose the boundary points are defined
as [p0 p1 p2 p3 ... pN]
and the index values are
defined as [i0 i1 i2 ... i(N1)]
. When you want
any input value less than p0
to be assigned to
index value i0
and any input values greater than pN
to
be assigned to index value i(N1)
, select Clip
.
When you want to be warned when clipping occurs, select Clip
and warn
. When you want the simulation to stop and the
block to display an error when the index values are out of range,
select Error
. This parameter is visible
when you select Bounded
from the Partitioning list.
Specify the data type of the index output from the block at
port I. You can choose int8
, uint8
, int16
, uint16
, int32
,
or uint32
.
The Data Types pane of the Scalar Quantizer Encoder block dialog appears as follows.
Select the rounding mode for fixedpoint operations.
Select the overflow mode to be used when block inputs are fixed point.
Gersho, A. and R. Gray. Vector Quantization and Signal Compression. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992.
Port  Supported Data Types 

U 

B 

C 

I 

Q(U) 

Err 

S 

For more information on what data types are supported for each quantizer mode, see Data Type Support.
Quantizer  Simulink 
Scalar Quantizer Decoder  DSP System Toolbox 
Scalar Quantizer Design  DSP System Toolbox 
Uniform Encoder  DSP System Toolbox 
Uniform Decoder  DSP System Toolbox 