Zero-pole-gain lowpass to N-point frequency transformation

```
[Z2,P2,K2,AllpassNum,AllpassDen]
= zpklp2xn(Z,P,K,Wo,Wt)
```

[Z2,P2,K2,AllpassNum,AllpassDen]
= zpklp2xn(Z,P,K,Wo,Wt,Pass)

```
[Z2,P2,K2,AllpassNum,AllpassDen]
= zpklp2xn(Z,P,K,Wo,Wt)
```

returns zeros, `Z`

_{2},
poles, `P`

_{2}, and gain factor, `K`

_{2},
of the target filter transformed from the real lowpass prototype by
applying an `N`

th-order real lowpass to real multipoint
frequency transformation, where `N`

is the number
of features being mapped. By default the DC feature is kept at its
original location.

```
[Z2,P2,K2,AllpassNum,AllpassDen]
= zpklp2xn(Z,P,K,Wo,Wt,Pass)
```

allows you to specify an additional
parameter, `Pass`

, which chooses between using the
"DC Mobility" and the "Nyquist Mobility". In the first case the Nyquist
feature stays at its original location and the DC feature is free
to move. In the second case the DC feature is kept at an original
frequency and the Nyquist feature is allowed to move.

It also returns the numerator, `AllpassNum`

,
and the denominator, `AllpassDen`

, of the allpass
mapping filter. The prototype lowpass filter is given with zeros, `Z`

,
poles, `P`

, and gain factor, `K`

.

Parameter `N`

also specifies the number of
replicas of the prototype filter created around the unit circle after
the transformation. This transformation effectively places `N`

features
of an original filter, located at frequencies W_{o1},...,W_{oN},
at the required target frequency locations, W_{t1},...,W_{tM}.

Relative positions of other features of an original filter are
the same in the target filter for the Nyquist mobility and are reversed
for the DC mobility. For the Nyquist mobility this means that it is
possible to select two features of an original filter, F_{1} and
F_{2}, with F_{1} preceding
F_{2}. Feature F_{1} will
still precede F_{2} after the transformation.
However, the distance between F_{1} and F_{2} will
not be the same before and after the transformation. For DC mobility
feature F_{2} will precede F_{1} after
the transformation.

Choice of the feature subject to this transformation is not
restricted to the cutoff frequency of an original lowpass filter.
In general it is possible to select any feature; e.g., the stopband
edge, the DC, the deep minimum in the stopband, or other ones. The
only condition is that the features must be selected in such a way
that when creating `N`

bands around the unit circle,
there will be no band overlap.

This transformation can also be used for transforming other types of filters; e.g., notch filters or resonators can be easily replicated at a number of required frequency locations. A good application would be an adaptive tone cancellation circuit reacting to the changing number and location of tones.

Design a prototype real IIR halfband filter using a standard elliptic approach:

[b, a] = ellip(3,0.1,30,0.409); z = roots(b); p = roots(a); k = b(1); [z2,p2,k2] = zpklp2xn(z, p, k, [-0.5 0.5], [0 0.25], 'pass'); hfvt = fvtool(b, a, k2*poly(z2), poly(p2)); legend(hfvt,'Original Filter','Half-band Filter');

As demonstrated by the figure, the target filter has the desired response shape and values replicated from the prototype.

Variable | Description |
---|---|

`Z` | Zeros of the prototype lowpass filter |

`P` | Poles of the prototype lowpass filter |

`K` | Gain factor of the prototype lowpass filter |

`Wo` | Frequency value to be transformed from the prototype filter |

`Wt` | Desired frequency location in the transformed target filter |

`Pass` | Choice ( |

`Z2` | Zeros of the target filter |

`P2` | Poles of the target filter |

`K2` | Gain factor of the target filter |

`AllpassDen` | Numerator of the mapping filter |

`AllpassDen` | Denominator of the mapping filter |

Frequencies must be normalized to be between 0 and 1, with 1 corresponding to half the sample rate.

Cain, G.D., A. Krukowski and I. Kale, "High
Order Transformations for Flexible IIR Filter Design," *VII
European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO'94)*, vol.
3, pp. 1582-1585, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, September 1994.

Krukowski, A., G.D. Cain and I. Kale, "Custom
designed high-order frequency transformations for IIR filters," *38th
Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS'95)*,
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, August 1995.

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