zpklp2xn

Zero-pole-gain lowpass to N-point frequency transformation

Syntax

[Z2,P2,K2,AllpassNum,AllpassDen] = zpklp2xn(Z,P,K,Wo,Wt)
[Z2,P2,K2,AllpassNum,AllpassDen] = zpklp2xn(Z,P,K,Wo,Wt,Pass)

Description

[Z2,P2,K2,AllpassNum,AllpassDen] = zpklp2xn(Z,P,K,Wo,Wt) returns zeros, Z2, poles, P2, and gain factor, K2, of the target filter transformed from the real lowpass prototype by applying an Nth-order real lowpass to real multipoint frequency transformation, where N is the number of features being mapped. By default the DC feature is kept at its original location.

[Z2,P2,K2,AllpassNum,AllpassDen] = zpklp2xn(Z,P,K,Wo,Wt,Pass) allows you to specify an additional parameter, Pass, which chooses between using the "DC Mobility" and the "Nyquist Mobility". In the first case the Nyquist feature stays at its original location and the DC feature is free to move. In the second case the DC feature is kept at an original frequency and the Nyquist feature is allowed to move.

It also returns the numerator, AllpassNum, and the denominator, AllpassDen, of the allpass mapping filter. The prototype lowpass filter is given with zeros, Z, poles, P, and gain factor, K.

Parameter N also specifies the number of replicas of the prototype filter created around the unit circle after the transformation. This transformation effectively places N features of an original filter, located at frequencies Wo1,...,WoN, at the required target frequency locations, Wt1,...,WtM.

Relative positions of other features of an original filter are the same in the target filter for the Nyquist mobility and are reversed for the DC mobility. For the Nyquist mobility this means that it is possible to select two features of an original filter, F1 and F2, with F1 preceding F2. Feature F1 will still precede F2 after the transformation. However, the distance between F1 and F2 will not be the same before and after the transformation. For DC mobility feature F2 will precede F1 after the transformation.

Choice of the feature subject to this transformation is not restricted to the cutoff frequency of an original lowpass filter. In general it is possible to select any feature; e.g., the stopband edge, the DC, the deep minimum in the stopband, or other ones. The only condition is that the features must be selected in such a way that when creating N bands around the unit circle, there will be no band overlap.

This transformation can also be used for transforming other types of filters; e.g., notch filters or resonators can be easily replicated at a number of required frequency locations. A good application would be an adaptive tone cancellation circuit reacting to the changing number and location of tones.

Examples

Design a prototype real IIR halfband filter using a standard elliptic approach:

[b, a] = ellip(3,0.1,30,0.409);
z = roots(b);
p = roots(a);
k = b(1);
[z2,p2,k2] = zpklp2xn(z, p, k, [-0.5 0.5], [0 0.25], 'pass');
hfvt = fvtool(b, a, k2*poly(z2), poly(p2));
legend(hfvt,'Original Filter','Half-band Filter');

As demonstrated by the figure, the target filter has the desired response shape and values replicated from the prototype.

Arguments

VariableDescription
Z

Zeros of the prototype lowpass filter

P

Poles of the prototype lowpass filter

K

Gain factor of the prototype lowpass filter

Wo

Frequency value to be transformed from the prototype filter

Wt

Desired frequency location in the transformed target filter

Pass

Choice ('pass'/'stop') of passband/stopband at DC, 'pass' being the default

Z2

Zeros of the target filter

P2

Poles of the target filter

K2

Gain factor of the target filter

AllpassDen

Numerator of the mapping filter

AllpassDen

Denominator of the mapping filter

Frequencies must be normalized to be between 0 and 1, with 1 corresponding to half the sample rate.

References

Cain, G.D., A. Krukowski and I. Kale, "High Order Transformations for Flexible IIR Filter Design," VII European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO'94), vol. 3, pp. 1582-1585, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, September 1994.

Krukowski, A., G.D. Cain and I. Kale, "Custom designed high-order frequency transformations for IIR filters," 38th Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS'95), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, August 1995.

Was this topic helpful?