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This example shows how to simulate trend-stationary and difference-stationary processes. The simulation results illustrate the distinction between these two nonstationary process models.
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Step 1. Generate realizations from a trend-stationary process. Step 2. Generate realizations from a difference-stationary process. |
Step 1. Generate realizations from a trend-stationary process.
Specify the trend-stationary process
where the innovation process is Gaussian with variance 8. After specifying the model, simulate 50 sample paths of length 200. Use 100 burn-in simulations.
t = [1:200]'; trend = 0.5*t; model = arima('Constant',0,'MA',{1.4,0.8},'Variance',8); rng('default') u = simulate(model,300,'NumPaths',50); Yt = repmat(trend,1,50) + u(101:300,:); figure plot(Yt,'Color',[.85,.85,.85]) hold on h1=plot(t,trend,'r','LineWidth',5); xlim([0,200]) title('Trend-Stationary Process') h2=plot(mean(Yt,2),'k--','LineWidth',2); legend([h1,h2],'Trend','Simulation Mean',... 'Location','NorthWest') hold off
The sample paths fluctuate around the theoretical trend line with constant variance. The simulation mean is close to the true trend line.
Step 2. Generate realizations from a difference-stationary process.
Specify the difference-stationary model
where the innovation distribution is Gaussian with variance 8. After specifying the model, simulate 50 sample paths of length 200. No burn-in is needed because all sample paths should begin at zero. This is the simulate default starting point for nonstationary processes with no presample data.
model = arima('Constant',0.5,'D',1,'MA',{1.4,0.8},... 'Variance',8); rng('default') Yd = simulate(model,200,'NumPaths',50); figure plot(Yd,'Color',[.85,.85,.85]) hold on h1=plot(t,trend,'r','LineWidth',5); xlim([0,200]) title('Difference-Stationary Process') h2=plot(mean(Yd,2),'k--','LineWidth',2); legend([h1,h2],'Trend','Simulation Mean',... 'Location','NorthWest') hold off
The simulation average is close to the trend line with slope 0.5. The variance of the sample paths grows over time.
Step 3. Difference the sample paths.
A difference-stationary process is stationary when differenced appropriately. Take the first differences of the sample paths from the difference-stationary process, and plot the differenced series. One observation is lost as a result of the differencing.
diffY = diff(Yd,1,1); figure plot(2:200,diffY,'Color',[.85,.85,.85]) xlim([0,200]) title('Differenced Series') hold on h = plot(2:200,mean(diffY,2),'k--','LineWidth',2); legend(h,'Simulation Mean','Location','NorthWest') hold off
The differenced series looks stationary, with the simulation mean fluctuating around zero.