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Speeding Up Fixed-Point Execution with fiaccel |
You can convert fixed-point MATLAB^{®} code to MEX functions using fiaccel. The generated MEX functions contain optimizations to automatically accelerate fixed-point algorithms to compiled C/C++ code speed in MATLAB. The fiaccel function can greatly increase the execution speed of your algorithms.
The basic command is:
fiaccel M_fcn
By default, fiaccel performs the following actions:
Searches for the function M_fcn stored in the file M_fcn.m as specified in Compile Path Search Order.
Compiles M_fcn to MEX code.
If there are no errors or warnings, generates a platform-specific MEX file in the current folder, using the naming conventions described in File Naming Conventions.
If there are errors, does not generate a MEX file, but produces an error report in a default output folder, as described in Generated Files and Locations.
If there are warnings, but no errors, generates a platform-specific MEX file in the current folder, but does report the warnings.
You can modify this default behavior by specifying one or more compiler options with fiaccel, separated by spaces on the command line.
fiaccel generates files in the following locations:
Generates: | In: |
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Platform-specific MEX files | Current folder |
HTML reports (if errors or warnings occur during compilation) | Default output folder: fiaccel/mex/M_fcn_name/html |
You can change the name and location of generated files by using the options -o and -d when you run fiaccel.
In this example, you will use the fiaccel function to compile different parts of a simple algorithm. By comparing the run times of the two cases, you will see the benefits and best use of the fiaccel function.
The algorithm used throughout this example replicates the functionality of the MATLAB sum function, which sums the columns of a matrix. To see the algorithm, type open fi_matrix_column_sum.m at the MATLAB command line.
function B = fi_matrix_column_sum(A) % Sum the columns of matrix A. %#codegen [m,n] = size(A); w = get(A,'WordLength') + ceil(log2(m)); f = get(A,'FractionLength'); B = fi(zeros(1,n),true,w,f); for j = 1:n for i = 1:m B(j) = B(j) + A(i,j); end end
The best way to speed up the execution of the algorithm is to compile the entire algorithm using the fiaccel function. To evaluate the performance improvement provided by the fiaccel function when the entire algorithm is compiled, run the following code.
The first portion of code executes the algorithm using only MATLAB functions. The second portion of the code compiles the entire algorithm using the fiaccel function. The MATLAB tic and toc functions keep track of the run times for each method of execution.
% MATLAB fipref('NumericTypeDisplay','short'); A = fi(randn(1000,10)); tic B = fi_matrix_column_sum(A) t_matrix_column_sum_m = toc % fiaccel fiaccel fi_matrix_column_sum -args {A} ... -I [matlabroot '/toolbox/fixedpoint/fidemos'] tic B = fi_matrix_column_sum_mex(A); t_matrix_column_sum_mex = toc
Compiling only the smallest unit of computation using the fiaccel function leads to much slower execution. In some cases, the overhead that results from calling the mex function inside a nested loop can cause even slower execution than using MATLAB functions alone. To evaluate the performance of the mex function when only the smallest unit of computation is compiled, run the following code.
The first portion of code executes the algorithm using only MATLAB functions. The second portion of the code compiles the smallest unit of computation with the fiaccel function, leaving the rest of the computations to MATLAB.
% MATLAB tic [m,n] = size(A); w = get(A,'WordLength') + ceil(log2(m)); f = get(A,'FractionLength'); B = fi(zeros(1,n),true,w,f); for j = 1:n for i = 1:m B(j) = fi_scalar_sum(B(j),A(i,j)); % B(j) = B(j) + A(i,j); end end t_scalar_sum_m = toc % fiaccel fiaccel fi_scalar_sum -args {B(1),A(1,1)} ... -I [matlabroot '/toolbox/fixedpoint/fidemos'] tic [m,n] = size(A); w = get(A,'WordLength') + ceil(log2(m)); f = get(A,'FractionLength'); B = fi(zeros(1,n),true,w,f); for j = 1:n for i = 1:m B(j) = fi_scalar_sum_mex(B(j),A(i,j)); % B(j) = B(j) + A(i,j); end end t_scalar_sum_mex = toc
A comparison of Trial 1 and Trial 2 appears in the following table. Your computer may record different times than the ones the table shows, but the ratios should be approximately the same. There is an extreme difference in ratios between the trial where the entire algorithm was compiled using fiaccel (t_matrix_column_sum_mex.m) and where only the scalar sum was compiled (t_scalar_sum_mex.m). Even the file with no fiaccel compilation (t_matrix_column_sum_m) did better than when only the smallest unit of computation was compiled using fiaccel (t_scalar_sum_mex).
X (Overall Performance Rank) | Time | X/Best | X_m/X_mex |
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Trial 1: Best Performance | |||
t_matrix_column_sum_m (2) | 1.99759 | 84.4917 | 84.4917 |
t_matrix_column_sum_mex (1) | 0.0236424 | 1 | |
Trial 2: Worst Performance | |||
t_scalar_sum_m (4) | 10.2067 | 431.71 | 2.08017 |
t_scalar_sum_mex (3) | 4.90664 | 207.536 |
Fixed-Point Designer™ software ships with an example of how to generate a MEX function from MATLAB code. The code in the example takes the weighted average of a signal to create a lowpass filter. To run the example in the Help browser select MATLAB Examples under Fixed-Point Designer, and then select Fixed-Point Lowpass Filtering Using MATLAB for Code Generation.
You can specify data type override in this example by typing an extra command at the MATLAB prompt in the "Define Fixed-Point Parameters" section of the example. To turn data type override on, type the following command at the MATLAB prompt after running the reset(fipref) command in that section:
fipref('DataTypeOverride','TrueDoubles')
This command tells Fixed-Point Designer software to create all fi objects with type fi double. When you compile the code using the fiaccel command in the "Compile the M-File into a MEX File" section of the example, the resulting MEX-function uses floating-point data.
MEX functions generated with fiaccel use the MATLAB default global fimath. The MATLAB factory default global fimath has the following properties:
RoundingMethod: Nearest OverflowAction: Saturate ProductMode: FullPrecision SumMode: FullPrecision
When running MEX functions that depend on the MATLAB default fimath value, do not change this value during your MATLAB session. Otherwise, MATLAB generates a warning, alerting you to a mismatch between the compile-time and run-time fimath values. For example, create the following MATLAB function:
function y = test %#codegen y = fi(0);
The function test constructs a fi object without explicitly specifying a fimath object. Therefore, test relies on the default fimath object in effect at compile time.
Generate the MEX function test_mex to use the factory setting of the MATLAB default fimath.
resetglobalfimath;
fiaccel test
fiaccel generates a MEX function, test_mex, in the current folder.
Run test_mex.
test_mex
ans = 0 DataTypeMode: Fixed-point: binary point scaling Signedness: Signed WordLength: 16 FractionLength: 15
Modify the MATLAB default fimath value so it no longer matches the setting used at compile time.
F = fimath('RoundingMethod','Floor'); globalfimath(F);
Clear the MEX function from memory and rerun it.
clear test_mex
test_mex
The mismatch is detected and MATLAB generates a warning.
testglobalfimath_mex Warning: This function was generated with a different default fimath than the current default. ans = 0 DataTypeMode: Fixed-point: binary point scaling Signedness: Signed WordLength: 16 FractionLength: 15
To avoid this issue, separate the fimath properties from your algorithm by using types tables. For more information, see Separate Data Type Definitions from Algorithm.