# Documentation

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# rarx

(To be removed) Estimate parameters of ARX or AR models recursively

### Note

`rarx` will be removed in a future release. Use `recursiveAR` or `recursiveARX` instead.

## Syntax

```thm = rarx(z,nn,adm,adg) [thm,yhat,P,phi] = rarx(z,nn,adm,adg,th0,P0,phi0) ```

## Description

`thm = rarx(z,nn,adm,adg)` estimates the parameters `thm` of single-output ARX model from input-output data `z` and model orders `nn` using the algorithm specified by `adm` and `adg`. If `z` is a time series `y` and ```nn = na```, `rarx` estimates the parameters of a single-output AR model.

`[thm,yhat,P,phi] = rarx(z,nn,adm,adg,th0,P0,phi0)` estimates the parameters `thm`, the predicted output `yhat`, final values of the scaled covariance matrix of the parameters `P`, and final values of the data vector `phi` of single-output ARX model from input-output data `z` and model orders `nn` using the algorithm specified by `adm` and `adg`. If `z` is a time series `y` and ```nn = na```, `rarx` estimates the parameters of a single-output AR model.

## Input Arguments

`z`

Name of the matrix `iddata` object that represents the input-output data or a matrix `z = [y u]`, where `y` and `u` are column vectors.

For multiple-input models, the `u` matrix contains each input as a column vector:

```u = [u1 ... unu] ```
`nn`

For input-output models, specifies the structure of the ARX model as:

```nn = [na nb nk] ```

where `na` and `nb` are the orders of the ARX model, and `nk` is the delay.

For multiple-input models, `nb` and `nk` are row vectors that define orders and delays for each input.

For time-series models, `nn = na`, where `na` is the order of the AR model.

### Note

The delay `nk` must be larger than `0`. If you want `nk = 0`, shift the input sequence appropriately and use `nk = 1` (see `nkshift`).

`adm` and `adg`

`adm = 'ff'` and `adg` = `lam` specify the forgetting factor algorithm with the forgetting factor λ`=lam`. This algorithm is also known as recursive least squares (RLS). In this case, the matrix `P` has the following interpretation: R2`/2` * `P` is approximately equal to the covariance matrix of the estimated parameters.R2 is the variance of the innovations (the true prediction errors e(t)).

`adm ='ug'` and `adg = gam` specify the unnormalized gradient algorithm with gain gamma = `gam`. This algorithm is also known as the normalized least mean squares (LMS).

`adm ='ng'` and `adg` = `gam` specify the normalized gradient or normalized least mean squares (NLMS) algorithm. In these cases, `P` is not applicable.

`adm ='kf'` and `adg =R1` specify the Kalman filter based algorithm with R2=`1` and R1 = `R1`. If the variance of the innovations e(t) is not unity but R2; then R2* `P` is the covariance matrix of the parameter estimates, while R1 = `R1` /R2 is the covariance matrix of the parameter changes.

`th0`

Initial value of the parameters in a row vector, consistent with the rows of `thm`.

Default: All zeros.

`P0`

Initial values of the scaled covariance matrix of the parameters.

Default: 104 times the identity matrix.

`phi0`

The argument `phi0` contains the initial values of the data vector:

φ(t) = [y(t–1),...,y(tna),u(t–1),...,u(tnbnk+1)]

If `z = [y(1),u(1); ... ;y(N),u(N)]`, phi0 = φ(1) and phi = φ(N). For online use of `rarx`, use `phi0`, `th0`, and `P0` as the previous outputs `phi`, `thm` (last row), and `P`.

Default: All zeros.

## Output Arguments

`thm`

Estimated parameters of the model. The `k`th row of `thm` contains the parameters associated with time `k`; that is, the estimate parameters are based on the data in rows up to and including row `k` in `z`. Each row of `thm` contains the estimated parameters in the following order:

```thm(k,:) = [a1,a2,...,ana,b1,...,bnb] ```

For a multiple-input model, the b are grouped by input. For example, the b parameters associated with the first input are listed first, and the b parameters associated with the second input are listed next.

`yhat`

Predicted value of the output, according to the current model; that is, row `k` of `yhat` contains the predicted value of `y(k)` based on all past data.

`P`

Final values of the scaled covariance matrix of the parameters.

`phi`

`phi` contains the final values of the data vector:

φ(t) = [y(t–1),...,y(tna),u(t–1),...,u(tnbnk+1)]

## Examples

Adaptive noise canceling: The signal y contains a component that originates from a known signal r. Remove this component by recursively estimating the system that relates r to y using a sixth-order FIR model and the NLMS algorithm.

```z = [y r]; [thm,noise] = rarx(z,[0 6 1],'ng',0.1); % noise is the adaptive estimate of the noise % component of y plot(y-noise) ```

If this is an online application, you can plot the best estimate of the signal `y - noise` at the same time as the data y and u become available, use the following code:

```phi = zeros(6,1); P=1000*eye(6); th = zeros(1,6); axis([0 100 -2 2]); plot(0,0,'*'), hold on % Use a while loop while ~abort [y,r,abort] = readAD(time); [th,ns,P,phi] = rarx([y r],'ff',0.98,th,P,phi); plot(time,y-ns,'*') time = time + Dt end ```

This example uses a forgetting factor algorithm with a forgetting factor of 0.98. `readAD` is a function that reads the value of an A/D converter at the indicated time instant.

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### ARX Model Structure

The general ARX model structure is:

`$A\left(q\right)y\left(t\right)=B\left(q\right)u\left(t-nk\right)+e\left(t\right)$`

The orders of the ARX model are:

Models with several inputs are defined, as follows:

A(q)y(t) = B1(q)u1(tnk1)+...+Bnuunu(tnknu)+e(t)