System Identification Toolbox™ software uses objects to represent
a variety of linear and nonlinear model structures. These linear model
objects are collectively known as *Identified Linear Time-Invariant* (IDLTI)
models.

IDLTI models contain two distinct dynamic components:

**Measured component**— Describes the relationship between the measured inputs and the measured output (G)**Noise component**— Describes the relationship between the disturbances at the output and the measured output (H)

Models that only have the noise component `H`

are
called time-series or signal models. Typically, you create such models
using time-series data that consist of one or more outputs `y(t)`

with
no corresponding input.

The total output is the sum of the contributions from the measured
inputs and the disturbances: *y = G u + H e*, where *u* represents
the measured inputs and *e* the disturbance. *e(t)* is
modeled as zero-mean Gaussian white noise with variance Λ. The
following figure illustrates an IDLTI model.

When you simulate an IDLTI model, you study the effect of input *u(t)* (and
possibly initial conditions) on the output *y(t)*.
The noise *e(t)* is not considered. However, with
finite-horizon prediction of the output, both the measured and the
noise components of the model contribute towards computation of the
(predicted) response.

**One-step ahead prediction model corresponding to a linear identified
model (y = Gu+He)**

The various linear model structures provide different ways of
parameterizing the transfer functions `G`

and `H`

.
When you construct an IDLTI model or estimate a model directly using
input-output data, you can configure the structure of both *G* and *H*,
as described in the following table:

Model Type | Transfer Functions G and H | Configuration Method |
---|---|---|

State space model (`idss` ) | Represents an identified state-space model structure, governed
by the equations: $$\begin{array}{l}\dot{x}=Ax+Bu+Ke\\ y=Cx+Du+e\end{array}$$ where the transfer function
between the measured input | Construction: Use Estimation:
Use |

Polynomial model (`idpoly` ) | Represents a polynomial model such as ARX, ARMAX and
BJ. An ARMAX model, for example, uses the input-output equation Ay(t)
= Bu(t)+Ce(t), so that the measured transfer
function The ARMAX model is a special configuration of the general polynomial model whose governing equation is: $$Ay(t)=\frac{B}{F}u(t)+\frac{C}{D}e(t)$$ The autoregressive component, | Construction: Use y = idpoly([],B,[],[],F) Estimation:
Use the $$y(t)=\frac{B}{F}u(t)+\frac{C}{D}e(t)$$ |

Transfer function model (`idtf` ) | Represents an identified transfer function model, which
has no dynamic elements to model noise behavior. This object uses
the trivial noise model $$y(t)=\frac{num}{den}u(t)+e(t)$$
| Construction: Use Estimation:
Use |

Process model (`idproc` ) | Represents a process model, which provides options to
represent the noise dynamics as either first- or second-order ARMA
process (that is, | For process (and grey-box) models, the noise component
is often treated as an on-demand extension to an otherwise measured
component-centric representation. For these models, you can add a
noise component by using the model = procest(data,'P1D') estimates a model whose equation is: $$y(s)={K}_{p}\frac{1}{({T}_{p1}s+1)}{e}^{-sTd}u(s)+e(s).$$ To add a second order noise component to the model, use: Options = procestOptions(‘DisturbanceModel',‘ARMA1'); model = procest(data,‘P1D',Options); This model has the equation: $$y(s)={K}_{p}\frac{1}{({T}_{p1}s+1)}{e}^{-sTd}u(s)+\frac{1+{c}_{1}s}{1+{d}_{1}s}e(s)$$ where the coefficients model = idproc('P1','Kp',1,'Tp1',1,'NoiseTF',struct('num',[1 0.1],'den',... [1 0.5])) y(s)
= 1/(s+1) u(s) + (s + 0.1)/(s + 0.5) e(s) |

Sometimes, fixing coefficients or specifying bounds on the parameters
are not sufficient. For example, you may have unrelated parameter
dependencies in the model or parameters may be a function of a different
set of parameters that you want to identify exclusively. For example,
in a mass-spring-damper system, the `A`

and `B`

parameters
both depend on the mass of the system. To achieve such parameterization
of linear models, you can use grey-box modeling where you establish
the link between the actual parameters and model coefficients by writing
an ODE file. To learn more, see Grey-Box Model Estimation.

You typically use estimation to create models in System Identification Toolbox.
You execute one of the estimation commands, specifying as input arguments
the measured data, along with other inputs necessary to define the
structure of a model. To illustrate, the following example uses the
state-space estimation command, `ssest`

,
to create a state space model. The first input argument `data`

specifies
the measured input-output data. The second input argument specifies
the order of the model.

sys = ssest(data,4)

The estimation function treats the noise variable *e(t)* as
prediction error – the residual portion of the output that
cannot be attributed to the measured inputs. All estimation algorithms
work to minimize a weighted norm of *e(t)* over the
span of available measurements. The weighting function is defined
by the nature of the noise transfer function *H* and
the focus of estimation, such as simulation or prediction error minimization.

In a black-box estimation, you only have to specify the order to configure the structure of the model.

sys =estimator(data,orders)

where * estimator* is the name of an
estimation command to use for the desired model type.

For example, you use `tfest`

to
estimate transfer function models, `arx`

for
ARX-structure polynomial models, and `procest`

for
process models.

The first argument, `data`

, is time- or frequency
domain data represented as an `iddata`

or `idfrd`

object. The second argument, `orders`

,
represents one or more numbers whose definitions depends upon the
model type:

For transfer functions,

`orders`

refers to the number of poles and zeros.For state-space models,

`orders`

is a scalar that refers to the number of states.For process models,

`orders`

is a string denoting the structural elements of a process model, such as, the number of poles and presence of delay and integrator.

When working with the app, you specify the orders in the appropriate edit fields of corresponding model estimation dialogs.

In some situations, you want to configure the structure of the
desired model more closely than what is achieved by simply specifying
the orders. In such cases, you construct a template model and configure
its properties. You then pass that template model as an input argument
to the estimation commands in place of `orders`

.

To illustrate, the following example assigns initial guess values to the numerator and the denominator polynomials of a transfer function model, imposes minimum and maximum bounds on their estimated values, and then passes the object to the estimator function.

% Initial guess for numerator num = [1 2]; den = [1 2 1 1]; % Initial guess for the denominator sys = idtf(num,den); % Set min bound on den coefficients to 0.1 sys.Structure.Denominator.Minimum = [1 0.1 0.1 0.1]; sysEstimated = tfest(data,sys);

The estimation algorithm uses the provided initial guesses to kick-start the estimation and delivers a model that respects the specified bounds.

You can use such a model template to also configure auxiliary
model properties such as input/output names and units. If the values
of some of the model's parameters are initially unknown, you
can use `NaNs`

for them in the template.

There are many options associated with a model's estimation
algorithm that configure the estimation objective function, initial
conditions and numerical search algorithm, among other things. For
every estimation command, * estimator*, there
is a corresponding option command named

`estimator`

`Options`

.
To specify options for a particular estimator command, such as `tfest`

,
use the options command that corresponds to the estimation command,
in this case, `tfestOptions`

. The options command
returns an options set that you then pass as an input argument to
the corresponding estimation command.For example, to estimate an Output-Error structure polynomial
model, you use `oe`

. To specify `simulation`

as
the focus and `lsqnonlin`

as the search method, you
use `oeOptions`

:

load iddata1 z1 Options = oeOptions('Focus','simulation','SearchMethod','lsqnonlin'); sys= oe(z1,[2 2 1],Options);

Information about the options used to create an estimated model
is stored in the `OptionsUsed`

field of the model's `Report`

property.
For more information, see Estimation Report.

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