# imwarp

Apply geometric transformation to image

## Syntax

• `B = imwarp(A,tform)` example
• `B = imwarp(A,D)`
• ```[B,RB] = imwarp(A,RA,tform)```
• `B = imwarp(___,Interp)`
• ```[B,RB] = imwarp(___,Name,Value)```

## Description

example

````B = imwarp(A,tform)` transforms the image `A` according to the geometric transformation defined by `tform`, which is a geometric transformation object. `B` is the transformed image.This function supports code generation (see Tips).```
````B = imwarp(A,D)` transforms the input image `A` according to the displacement field defined by `D`. ```
``````[B,RB] = imwarp(A,RA,tform)``` transforms the spatially referenced image, specified by the image data `A` and the associated spatial referencing object `RA`. The output is a spatially referenced image specified by the image data `B` and the associated spatial referencing object `RB`.```
````B = imwarp(___,Interp)` specifies the form of interpolation to use```
``````[B,RB] = imwarp(___,Name,Value)``` specifies parameters that control various aspects of the geometric transformation. Parameter names can be abbreviated, and case does not matter.```

## Examples

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### Apply Horizontal Shear to Image

Read grayscale image into workspace and display it.

```I = imread('cameraman.tif'); imshow(I) ```

Create a 2-D geometric transformation object.

```tform = affine2d([1 0 0; .5 1 0; 0 0 1]) ```
```tform = affine2d with properties: T: [3x3 double] Dimensionality: 2 ```

Apply the transformation to the image.

```J = imwarp(I,tform); figure imshow(J) ```

### Apply Rotation Transformation to 3-D MRI Dataset

Read MRI data into the workspace and visualize it.

```s = load('mri'); mriVolume = squeeze(s.D); sizeIn = size(mriVolume); hFigOriginal = figure; hAxOriginal = axes; slice(double(mriVolume),sizeIn(2)/2,sizeIn(1)/2,sizeIn(3)/2); grid on, shading interp, colormap gray ```

Create a 3-D geometric transformation object. First create a transformation matrix that rotates the image around the Y axis. Then pass the matrix to the `affine3d` function.

``` theta = pi/8; t = [cos(theta) 0 -sin(theta) 0 0 1 0 0 sin(theta) 0 cos(theta) 0 0 0 0 1] tform = affine3d(t) ```
```t = 0.9239 0 -0.3827 0 0 1.0000 0 0 0.3827 0 0.9239 0 0 0 0 1.0000 tform = affine3d with properties: T: [4x4 double] Dimensionality: 3 ```

Apply the transformation to the image.

```mriVolumeRotated = imwarp(mriVolume,tform); ```

Visualize three slice planes through the center of the transformed volumes.

```sizeOut = size(mriVolumeRotated); hFigRotated = figure; hAxRotated = axes; slice(double(mriVolumeRotated),sizeOut(2)/2,sizeOut(1)/2,sizeOut(3)/2); grid on, shading interp, colormap gray ```

Link views of both axes together.

```linkprop([hAxOriginal,hAxRotated],'View'); ```

Set view to see effect of rotation.

```set(hAxRotated,'View',[-3.5 20.0]) ```

## Input Arguments

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### `A` — Image to be transformednonsparse, real-valued array of any numeric class or logical

Image to be transformed, specified as a nonsparse, real-valued array of any numeric class or logical.

### `tform` — 2-D or 3-D geometric transformation to performgeometric transformation object

2-D or 3-D geometric transformation to perform, specified as a geometric transformation object.

• If `tform` is 2-D and ```ndims(A) > 2```, such as for an RGB image, `imwarp` applies the same 2-D transformation to all 2-D planes along the higher dimensions.

• If `tform` is 3-D, `A` must be a 3-D image volume.

### `D` — Displacement fieldnonsparse numeric matrix

Displacement field, specified as nonsparse numeric matrix. When `A` is 2-D, `D` is an m-by-n-by-2 numeric array. When `A` is 3-D, `D` is an m-by-n-by-p-by-3 numeric array. The first plane of the displacement field, `D(:,:,1)` describes the `X` component of additive displacement that is added to column and row locations in `D` to produce remapped locations in `A`. Similarly, `D(:,:,2)` describes the `Y` component of additive displacement values. In the 3-D case, `D(:,:,3)` describes the `Z` component of additive displacement. The unit of displacement values in `D` is pixels. When `A` is m-by-n-by-p and `D` is m-by-n-by-2, `imwarp` applies the displacement field to one plane at a time. `imwarp` assumes that `D` is referenced to the default intrinsic coordinate system.

### `RA` — Spatial referencing information associated with the image to be transformedspatial referencing object

Spatial referencing information associated with the image to be transformed, specified as a spatial referencing object.

• If `tform` is a 2-D geometric transformation, `RA` must be a 2-D spatial referencing object (`imref2d`).

• If `tform` is a 3-D geometric transformation, `RA` must be a 3-D spatial referencing object (`imref3d`).

### `Interp` — Form of interpolation used `'linear'` (default) | `'nearest'` | `'cubic'`

Form of interpolation used, specified as one of the following character strings:

Interpolation MethodDescription
`'linear'`Linear interpolation
`'nearest'`Nearest-neighbor interpolation—the output pixel is assigned the value of the pixel that the point falls within. No other pixels are considered.
`'cubic'`Cubic interpolation

Data Types: `char`

### Name-Value Pair Arguments

Specify optional comma-separated pairs of `Name,Value` arguments. `Name` is the argument name and `Value` is the corresponding value. `Name` must appear inside single quotes (`' '`). You can specify several name and value pair arguments in any order as `Name1,Value1,...,NameN,ValueN`.

Example: `J = imwarp(I,tform,'FillValues',255)` uses white pixels as fill values.

### `'OutputView'` — Size and location of output image in world coordinate system`imref2d` or `imref3d` spatial referencing object

Size and location of output image in world coordinate system, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of `'OutputView'` and a `imref2d` or `imref3d` spatial referencing object. The `ImageSize`, `XWorldLimits`, and `YWorldLimits` properties of the specified spatial referencing object define the size of the output image and the location of the output image in the world coordinate system.

### `'FillValues'` — Value used for output pixels outside image boundariesnumeric scalar or array

Value used for output pixels outside the input image boundaries, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of `'FillValues'` and a numeric array. Fill values are used for output pixels when the corresponding inverse transformed location in the input image is completely outside the input image boundaries.

• If the input image is 2-D, `FillValues` must be a scalar.

• If the input image is 3-D and the geometric transformation is 3-D, `FillValues` must be a scalar.

• If the input image is N-D and the geometric transformation is 2-D, `FillValues` may be either scalar or an array whose size matches dimensions 3 to N of the input image.

For example, if the input image is a `uint8` RGB image that is 200-by-200-by-3, `FillValues` can be a scalar or a 3-by-1 array. In this RGB image example, possibilities for `FillValues` include:

FillValueEffect
`0`Fill with black
`[0;0;0]`Fill with black
`255`Fill with white
`[255;255;255]`Fill with white
`[0;0;255]`Fill with blue
`[255;255;0]`Fill with yellow

• If the input image is 4-D with size 200-by-200-by-3-by-10, `FillValues` can be a scalar or a 3-by-10 array.

## Output Arguments

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### `B` — Transformed imagenonsparse real-valued array of any numeric class or logical

Transformed image, returned as a nonsparse real-valued array of any numeric class or logical.

### `RB` — Spatial referencing information associated with the transformed imagespatial referencing object

Spatial referencing information associated with the transformed image, returned as a spatial referencing object.

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### Tips

• This function supports the generation of C code using MATLAB® Coder™. Note that if you choose the generic `MATLAB Host Computer` target platform, the function generates code that uses a precompiled, platform-specific shared library. Use of a shared library preserves performance optimizations but limits the target platforms for which code can be generated. For more information, see Understanding Code Generation with Image Processing Toolbox.

When generating code, note:

• The geometric transformation object input, `tform`, must be either an `affine2d` or `projective2d` object.

• The interpolation method and optional parameter names must be string constants.