## Documentation Center |

Apply spatial transformation to N-D array

`B = tformarray(A, T, R, TDIMS_A, TDIMS_B,
TSIZE_B, TMAP_B, F)`

`B = tformarray(A, T, R, TDIMS_A, TDIMS_B,
TSIZE_B, TMAP_B, F)` applies a spatial transformation to
array `A` to produce array `B`.
The `tformarray` function is like `imtransform`,
but is intended for problems involving higher-dimensioned arrays or
mixed input/output dimensionality, or requiring greater user control
or customization. (Anything that can be accomplished with `imtransform` can
be accomplished with a combination of `maketform`, `makeresampler`, `findbounds`,
and `tformarray`; but for many tasks involving 2-D
images, `imtransform` is simpler.)

This table provides a brief description of all the input arguments. See the following section for more detail about each argument. (Click an argument in the table to move to the appropriate section.)

Argument | Description |
---|---|

Input array or image | |

Spatial transformation structure, called a | |

Resampler structure, typically created with | |

Row vector listing the input transform dimensions | |

Row vector listing the output transform dimensions | |

Output array size in the transform dimensions | |

Array of point locations in output space; can be used as an alternative way to specify a spatial transformation | |

Array of fill values |

`A` can be any nonsparse numeric
array, and can be real or complex.

`T` is a `TFORM` structure
that defines a particular spatial transformation. For each location
in the output transform subscript space (as defined by `TDIMS_B` and `TSIZE_B`), `tformarray` uses `T` and
the function `tforminv` to compute the corresponding
location in the input transform subscript space (as defined by `TDIMS_A` and `size(A))`.

If `T` is empty, `tformarray` operates
as a direct resampling function, applying the resampler defined in
R to compute values at each transform space location defined in `TMAP_B` (if `TMAP_B` is
nonempty), or at each location in the output transform subscript grid.

`R` is a structure that defines
how to interpolate values of the input array at specified locations. `R` is
usually created with `makeresampler`, which allows
fine control over how to interpolate along each dimension, as well
as what input array values to use when interpolating close to the
edge of the array.

`TDIMS_A` and `TDIMS_B` indicate
which dimensions of the input and output arrays are involved in the
spatial transformation. Each element must be unique, and must be a
positive integer. The entries need not be listed in increasing order,
but the order matters. It specifies the precise correspondence between
dimensions of arrays `A` and `B` and
the input and output spaces of the transformer `T`. `length(TDIMS_A)` must
equal `T.ndims_in`, and `length(TDIMS_B)` must
equal `T.ndims_out`.

For example, if `T` is a 2-D transformation, `TDIMS_A
= [2 1]`, and `TDIMS_B = [1 2]`, then the
column dimension and row dimension of A correspond to the first and
second transformation input-space dimensions, respectively. The row
and column dimensions of `B` correspond to the first
and second output-space dimensions, respectively.

`TSIZE_B` specifies the size of
the array `B` along the output-space transform dimensions.
Note that the size of `B` along nontransform dimensions
is taken directly from the size of A along those dimensions. If, for
example, T is a 2-D transformation, `size(A) = [480 640 3
10]`, `TDIMS_B` is `[2 1]`,
and `TSIZE_B `is `[300 200]`, then `size(B)` is `[200
300 3]`.

`TMAP_B` is an optional array
that provides an alternative way of specifying the correspondence
between the position of elements of `B` and the location
in output transform space. `TMAP_B` can be used,
for example, to compute the result of an image warp at a set of arbitrary
locations in output space. If `TMAP_B` is not empty,
then the size of `TMAP_B` takes the form

[D1 D2 D3 ... DN L]

where `N` equals `length(TDIMS_B)`.
The vector `[D1 D2 ... DN]` is used in place of `TSIZE_B`.
If `TMAP_B` is not empty, then `TSIZE_B` should
be `[]`.

The value of `L` depends on whether or not `T` is
empty. If `T` is not empty, then `L` is `T.ndims_out`,
and each L-dimension point in `TMAP_B` is transformed
to an input-space location using `T`. If `T` is
empty, then `L` is `length(TDIMS_A)`,
and each `L`-dimensional point in `TMAP_B` is
used directly as a location in input space.

`F` is a double-precision array
containing fill values. The fill values in `F` can
be used in three situations:

When a separable resampler is created with

`makeresampler`and its`padmethod`is set to either`'fill'`or`'bound'`.When a custom resampler is used that supports the

`'fill'`or`'bound'`pad methods (with behavior that is specific to the customization).When the map from the transform dimensions of

`B`to the transform dimensions of`A`is deliberately undefined for some points. Such points are encoded in the input transform space by`NaN`s in either`TMAP_B`or in the output of`TFORMINV`.

In the first two cases, fill values are used to compute values
for output locations that map outside or near the edges of the input
array. Fill values are copied into `B` when output
locations map well outside the input array. See `makeresampler` for more information about `'fill'` and `'bound'`.

`F` can be a scalar (including `NaN`),
in which case its value is replicated across all the nontransform
dimensions. `F` can also be a nonscalar, whose size
depends on `size(A)` in the nontransform dimensions.
Specifically, if `K` is the `J`th
nontransform dimension of `A`, then `size(F,J)` must
be either `size(A,K)` or `1`. As
a convenience to the user, `tformarray` replicates `F` across
any dimensions with unit size such that after the replication `size(F,J)` equals `size(A,K)`.

For example, suppose `A` represents 10 RGB
images and has size 200-by-200-by-3-by-10, `T` is
a 2-D transformation, and `TDIMS_A` and `TDIMS_B` are
both [1 2]. In other words, `tformarray` will apply
the same 2-D transform to each color plane of each of the 10 RGB images.
In this situation you have several options for `F`:

`F`can be a scalar, in which case the same fill value is used for each color plane of all 10 images.`F`can be a 3-by-1 vector, [R G B]`'`. Then R, G, and B are used as the fill values for the corresponding color planes of each of the 10 images. This can be interpreted as specifying an RGB fill color, with the same color used for all 10 images.`F`can be a 1-by-10 vector. This can be interpreted as specifying a different fill value for each of 10 images, with that fill value being used for all three color planes.`F`can be a 3-by-10 matrix, which can be interpreted as supplying a different RGB fill color for each of the 10 images.

`A` can be any nonsparse numeric array, and
can be real or complex. It can also be of class `logical`.

Create a 2-by-2 checkerboard image where each square is 20 pixels
wide, then transform it with a projective transformation. Use a pad
method of `'circular`' when creating a resampler,
so that the output appears to be a perspective view of an infinite
checkerboard. Swap the output dimensions. Specify a 100-by-100 output
image. Leave `TMAP_B` empty, since `TSIZE_B` is
specified. Leave the fill value empty, since it won't be needed.

I = checkerboard(20,1,1); figure; imshow(I) T = maketform('projective',[1 1; 41 1; 41 41; 1 41],... [5 5; 40 5; 35 30; -10 30]); R = makeresampler('cubic','circular'); J = tformarray(I,T,R,[1 2],[2 1],[100 100],[],[]); figure; imshow(J)

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