Documentation

lteDLDeprecode

Downlink deprecoding onto transmission layers

Syntax

  • out = lteDLDeprecode(in,nu,txscheme,codebook)
    example
  • out = lteDLDeprecode(enb,chs,in)

Description

example

out = lteDLDeprecode(in,nu,txscheme,codebook) performs deprecoding using matrix pseudo-inversion to undo processing described in TS 36.211 [1], Section 6.3.4. The function returns an M-by-NU matrix out containing nu layers, with M symbols in each layer. The overall operation of the deprecoder is to transpose what is defined in the specification. The symbols for layers and antennas lie in columns rather than in rows.

out = lteDLDeprecode(enb,chs,in) performs deprecoding of the precoded symbol matrix, in, according to cell-wide settings enb and chs (channel transmission configurations).

Examples

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Perform Deprecoding on Identity Matrix

Deprecode a precoded identity matrix having codebook index 1 for three layers and four antennas.

in  = lteDLPrecode(eye(3),4,'SpatialMux',1);
out = lteDLDeprecode(in,3,'SpatialMux',1)
out =

   1.0000 + 0.0000i   0.0000 - 0.0000i  -0.0000 + 0.0000i
   0.0000 - 0.0000i   1.0000 + 0.0000i   0.0000 + 0.0000i
  -0.0000 + 0.0000i   0.0000 - 0.0000i   1.0000 + 0.0000i

Input Arguments

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in — Precoded input symbolsnumeric matrix

Precoded input symbols, specified as numeric matrix. The size of the matrix is N-by-P, where P is the number of transmission antennas and N is the number of symbols per antenna. Generate matrix by extracting a PDSCH using ltePDSCHIndices function on a received resource array. You can perform a similar extraction using the index generator for any other downlink channel that utilizes precoding.

nu — Number of layersinteger from 1 to 8

Number of layers, specified as a scalar integer from 1 to 8. The maximum number of layers depends on the string specified for the transmission scheme, txscheme.

txscheme — Transmission schemestring

Transmission scheme, specified as a string.

StringDescription
'Port0'Single-antenna port, port 0
'TxDiversity'Transmit diversity scheme
'CDD'Large delay CDD scheme
'SpatialMux'Closed-loop spatial multiplexing scheme
'MultiUser'Multiuser MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) scheme
'Port5'Single-antenna port, port 5
'Port7-8'Single-antenna port, port 7 (when NLayers = 1); dual-layer transmission, ports 7 and 8 (when NLayers = 2)
'Port8'Single-antenna port, Port 8
'Port7-14'Up to eight layer transmission, ports 7–14

codebook — Codebook indexscalar integer (0, ..., 15)

Codebook index to use during deprecoding, specified as a scalar integer from 0 through 15. This input is ignored for the 'Port0', 'TxDiversity', and 'CDD' transmission schemes. Find the codebook matrix corresponding to a particular index in TS 36.211 [1], Section 6.3.4.

Data Types: double

enb — eNodeB cell-wide settingsstructure

eNodeB cell-wide settings, specified as a structure that can contain the following parameter fields:

Parameter FieldRequired or OptionalValuesDescription
The following parameters apply when chs.TxScheme is set to 'SpatialMux' or 'MultiUser'.
  NCellIDRequired

Integer from 0 to 503

Physical layer cell identity.

  NSubframeRequired

Nonnegative integer

Subframe number.

  NDLRBRequired

Scalar integer (6,...,110). Standard bandwidth values are 6, 15, 25, 50, 75, and 100. NDLRB also accepts the standardized bandwidths in string format from the set {'1.4MHz', '3MHz', '5MHz', '10MHz', '15MHz', '20MHz'}.

Number of downlink (DL) resource blocks (RBs)

  CFIRequired

1, 2, or 3. scalar or if the CFI varies per subframe, a vector of length 10 (corresponding to a frame).

Control format indicator (CFI) value. In TDD mode, CFI varies per subframe for the RMCs ('R.0', 'R.5', 'R.6', 'R.6-27RB', 'R.12-9RB')

  CellRefPRequired

1, 2, 4

Number of cell-specific reference signal (CRS) antenna ports

  CyclicPrefixOptional

'Normal' (default), 'Extended'

Cyclic prefix length

  DuplexModeOptional

'FDD' (default), 'TDD'

Duplexing mode, specified as:

  • 'FDD' for Frequency Division Duplex or

  • 'TDD' for Time Division Duplex

The following parameters apply when DuplexMode is set to 'TDD'.
  TDDConfigOptional

0 (default), 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Uplink or downlink configuration

  SSCOptional

0 (default), 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Special subframe configuration (SSC)

Data Types: struct

chs — Channel-specific transmission configurationstructure

Channel-specific transmission configuration, specified as a structure that can contain the following parameter fields:

Parameter FieldRequired or OptionalValuesDescription
TxSchemeRequired

Default TxScheme is RMC-dependent. Valid values include: 'SpatialMux', 'Port0', 'TxDiversity', 'CDD', 'MultiUser', 'Port5', 'Port7-8', 'Port8', 'Port7-14'

Transmission scheme, specified as one of the following options.

  • 'SpatialMux' — Closed-loop spatial multiplexing.

  • 'Port0' — Single-antenna port, port 0.

  • 'TxDiversity' — Transmit diversity scheme.

  • 'CDD' — Large delay cyclic delay diversity scheme.

  • 'MultiUser' — Multiuser MIMO scheme.

  • 'Port5' — Single-antenna port, port 5.

  • 'Port7-8' — Single-antenna port, port 7 (NLayers = 1). Dual layer transmission, ports 7 and 8 (NLayers = 2).

  • 'Port8' — Single-antenna port, port 8.

  • 'Port7-14' — Up to eight-layer transmission, ports 7–14.

NLayersRequired

1, …, 8

Number of transmission layers.

The following parameters are applicable when TxScheme is set to 'SpatialMux' or 'MultiUser'. Include either CodebookIdx field or both PMISet and PRBSet fields. For more information, see Algorithms.
  CodebookIdxRequired

Nonnegative scalar integer (0, ..., 15)

Codebook index used during precoding

  PMISetRequired

Integer vector (0,...,15)

Precoder matrix indication (PMI) set. It can contain either a single value, corresponding to single PMI mode, or multiple values, corresponding to multiple or subband PMI mode. The number of values depends on CellRefP, transmission layers and TxScheme. For more information about setting PMI parameters, see ltePMIInfo.

  PRBSetRequired

Integer column vector or two-column matrix

Zero-based physical resource block (PRB) indices corresponding to the slot wise resource allocations for this PDSCH. PRBSet can be assigned as:

  • a column vector, the resource allocation is the same in both slots of the subframe,

  • a two-column matrix, this parameter specifies different PRBs for each slot in a subframe,

  • a cell array of length 10 (corresponding to a frame, if the allocated physical resource blocks vary across subframes).

PRBSet varies per subframe for the RMCs 'R.25'(TDD), 'R.26'(TDD), 'R.27'(TDD), 'R.43'(FDD), 'R.44', 'R.45', 'R.48', 'R.50', and 'R.51'.

The fields PMISet and PRBSet are used to determine the frequency-domain position occupied by each precoded symbol in out. This step is performed to apply the correct subband precoder when multiple PMI mode is used. Alternatively, you can provide the CodebookIdx parameter field. CodebookIdx is a scalar specifying the codebook index to use across the entire bandwidth. Therefore, the CodebookIdx field does not support subband precoding. The relationship between PMI values and codebook index is given in TS 36.213 [2], Section 7.2.4.

Output Arguments

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out — Deprecoded downlink outputnumeric matrix

Deprecoded downlink output, returned as M-by-NU numeric matrix, containing NU layers, with M symbols in each layer.

More About

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Algorithms

For transmission schemes 'CDD', 'SpatialMux', and 'MultiUser', and degenerately 'Port0',

  • Precoding involves multiplying a P-by-v precoding matrix, F, by a v-by-M matrix, representing M symbols on each of v transmission layers. This multiplication yields a P-by-M matrix, representing M precoded symbols on each of P antenna ports. Depending on the transmission scheme, the precoding matrix can be composed of multiple matrices multiplied together. But the size of the product, F, is always P-by-v.

For the 'TxDiversity' transmission scheme,

  • A P 2-by-2v precoding matrix, F, is multiplied by a 2v-by-M matrix, formed by splitting the real and imaginary components of a v-by-M matrix of symbols on layers. This multiplication yields a P 2-by-M matrix of precoded symbols, which is then reshaped into a P-by-PM matrix for transmission. Since v is P for the 'TxDiversity' transmission scheme, F is of size P 2-by-2P, rather than P 2-by-2v.

When v is P in 'CDD', 'SpatialMux', and 'MultiUser' transmission schemes, and when P and v are 2 in the 'TxDiversity' transmission scheme,

  • The precoding matrix, F, is square. Its size is 2P-by-2P for the transmit diversity scheme and P-by-P otherwise. In this case, the deprecoder takes the matrix inversion of the precoding matrix to yield the deprecoding matrix F –1. The matrix inversion is computed using LU decomposition with partial pivoting (row exchange):

    1. Perform LU decomposition PxF = LU.

    2. Solve LY = I using forward substitution.

    3. Solve UX = Y using back substitution.

    4. F –1 = XPx.

The degenerate case of the 'Port0' transmission scheme falls into this category, with P = v = 1.

For the 'CDD', 'SpatialMux', and 'MultiUser' transmission schemes,

  • The deprecoding is then performed by multiplying F –1 by the transpose of the input symbols (symbols is size M-by-P, so the transpose is a P-by-M matrix). This multiplication recovers the v-by-M (equals P-by-M) matrix of transmission layers.

For the 'TxDiversity' transmission scheme,

  • The deprecoding is performed, multiplying F –1 by the transpose of the input symbols (symbols is size PM-by-P, so the transpose is a P-by-PM matrix), having first been reshaped into a 2P-by-M matrix. This multiplication yields a 2v-by-M, matrix which is then split into two v-by-M matrices. To recover the v-by-M matrix of transmission layers multiply the second matrix by j and add the two matrices together (thus recombining real and imaginary parts).

For the other cases, specifically 'CDD', 'SpatialMux', and 'MultiUser' transmission schemes with v ≠ P and the 'TxDiversity' transmission scheme with P = 4,

  • The precoding matrix F is not square. Instead, the matrix is rectangular with size P-by-v, except in the case of 'TxDiversity' transmission scheme with P = 4, where it is of size P 2-by-(2P = 16)-by-8. The number of rows is always greater than the number of columns in the matrix F is size m-by-n with m > n.

  • In this case, the deprecoder takes the matrix pseudo-inversion of the precoding matrix to yield the deprecoding matrix F +. The matrix pseudo-inversion is computed as follows.

    1. Perform LU decomposition PxF = LU.

    2. Remove the last m − n rows of U to give U¯.

    3. Remove the last m − n columns of L to give L¯.

    4. X=U¯H(U¯U¯H)1(L¯HL¯)1L¯H (the matrix inversions are carried out as in the previous steps).

    5. F + = XPx

The application of the deprecoding matrix F + is the same process as described for deprecoding the square matrix case with F + in place of F –1.

This method of pseudo-inversion is based onLinear Algebra and Its Application [3], Chapter 3.4, Equation (56).

References

[1] 3GPP TS 36.211. "Physical Channels and Modulation." 3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical Specification Group Radio Access Network; Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA). URL: http://www.3gpp.org.

[2] 3GPP TS 36.213. "Physical layer procedures." 3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical Specification Group Radio Access Network; Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA). URL: http://www.3gpp.org.

[3] Strang, Gilbert. Linear Algebra and Its Application. Academic Press, 1980. 2nd Edition.

Introduced in R2014a

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