Documentation

lteFadingChannel

Multipath fading MIMO channel propagation conditions

Syntax

  • [out,info] = lteFadingChannel(model,in)
    example

Description

example

[out,info] = lteFadingChannel(model,in) implements the MIMO multipath fading channel model, as specified in TS 36.101 [1] and TS 36.104 [2]. Each column of the input matrix, in, corresponds to the waveform at each of the transmit antennas. The transmitted waveform passes through the multipath Rayleigh fading channel model specified by the input structure model. The delay profile of model is resampled to match the input signal sampling rate.

Examples

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Transmit Two Consecutive Frames over Fading Channel

The first frame is transmitted at time t = 0 sec. Hence the channel is initialized with InitTime parameter of 0 sec. The second frame is transmitted at time t = 10 msec, hence the channel fading process has to be initialized to that value. This guarantees continuity of the fading process between the end of the first frame and the beginning of the second.

Initialize a resource grid to RMC R.10 and generate a transmit waveform for first frame. Initialize propagation channel configuration structure and set the start time for first frame. Pass first frame through the channel.

rmc = lteRMCDL('R.10');
[txWaveform,txGrid,info] = lteRMCDLTool(rmc,[1;0;1]);
chcfg.DelayProfile = 'EPA';
chcfg.NRxAnts = 1;
chcfg.DopplerFreq = 5;
chcfg.MIMOCorrelation = 'Low';
chcfg.SamplingRate = info.SamplingRate;
chcfg.Seed = 1;
chcfg.InitPhase = 'Random';
chcfg.ModelType = 'GMEDS';
chcfg.NTerms = 16;
chcfg.NormalizeTxAnts = 'On';
chcfg.NormalizePathGains = 'On';
chcfg.InitTime = 0;
rxWaveform = lteFadingChannel(chcfg,txWaveform);

Update frame number and generate a transmit waveform for second frame. Set the start time for second frame to 10 msec. Pass second frame through the channel.

rmc.NFrame = 1;
[txWaveform,txGrid] = lteRMCDLTool(rmc,[1;0;1]);
chcfg.InitTime = 10e-3;
rxWaveform = lteFadingChannel(chcfg,txWaveform);

Input Arguments

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model — Multipath fading channel modelstructure

Multipath fading channel model, specified as a structure. model must contain the following fields.

Parameter FieldRequired or OptionalValuesDescription
NRxAntsRequired

Positive scalar integer

Number of receive antennas

MIMOCorrelationRequired

'Low', 'Medium', 'UplinkMedium', 'High', 'Custom'

Correlation between UE and eNodeB antennas

  • 'Low' correlation is equivalent to no correlation between antennas.

  • 'Medium' correlation level is applicable to tests defined in TS 36.101 [2]

  • 'UplinkMedium' correlation level is applicable to tests defined in TS 36.104 [2].

NormalizeTxAntsOptional

'On' (default), 'Off'

Transmit antenna number normalization, specified as a string.

  • 'On', lteFadingChannel normalizes the model output by 1/sqrt(P), where P is the number of transmit antennas. Normalization by the number of transmit antennas ensures that the output power per receive antenna is unaffected by the number of transmit antennas.

  • 'Off', normalization is not performed.

DelayProfileRequired

'EPA', 'EVA', 'ETU', 'Custom', 'Off'

Delay profile model.

Setting DelayProfile to 'Off' switches off fading completely and implements a static MIMO channel model. In this case, the antenna geometry corresponds to the number of transmit antennas (that is, the number of columns in the input in), the number of receive antennas, model.NRxAnts, and the MIMO correlation, model.MIMOCorrelation. The temporal part of the model for each link between transmit and receive antennas consists of a single path with zero delay and constant unit gain.

The following fields are required or optional (as indicated) when DelayProfile is set to a value other than 'Off'.
DopplerFreqRequiredScalar value

Maximum Doppler frequency, in Hertz.

SamplingRateRequiredNumeric scalar

Input signal sampling rate, the rate of each sample in the rows of the input matrix, in

InitTimeRequiredNumeric scalar

Fading process time offset, in seconds.

NTermsOptional

16 (default)

scalar power of 2

Number of oscillators used in fading path modeling.

ModelTypeOptional

'GMEDS' (default), 'Dent'

Rayleigh fading model type.

  • 'GMEDS', the Rayleigh fading is modeled using the Generalized Method of Exact Doppler Spread (GMEDS), as described in [4].

  • 'Dent', the Rayleigh fading is modeled using the modified Jakes fading model described in [3].

    Note:   ModelType = 'Dent' is not recommended. Use ModelType = 'GMEDS' instead.

NormalizePathGainsOptional

'On' (default), 'Off'

Model output normalization.

  • 'On', the model output is normalized such that the average power is unity.

  • 'Off', the average output power is the sum of the powers of the taps of the delay profile.

InitPhaseOptional'Random' (default), scalar value (in Radians), or a numeric array

Phase initialization for the sinusoidal components of the model, may be set as follows:

  • the string 'Random', the phases are randomly initialized according to Seed.

  • a scalar value, assumed to be in radians, is used to initialize the phases of all components.

  • an N-by-L-by-P-by-NRxAnts numeric array, used to explicitly initialize the phase in radians of each component. In this case, N is the number of phase initialization values per path, L is the number of paths, P is the number of transmit antennas, and NRxAnts is the number of receive antennas.

    Note:  

    • When ModelType is set to 'GMEDS', N = 2 × NTerms.

    • When ModelType is set to 'Dent', N = NTerms.

The following field is required when DelayProfile is set to a value other than 'Off' and InitPhase is set to 'Random'.
SeedRequiredScalar value

Random number generator seed. To use a random seed, set Seed to zero.

    Note:   To produce distinct results, use Seed values in the range

    0...231  1  (K(K  1)2)

    Where K = P × model.NRxAnts, the product of the number of transmit and receive antennas. Seed values outside of this recommended range should be avoided as they may result in random sequences that repeat results produced using Seed values inside the recommended range.

The following fields are required when DelayProfile is set to 'Custom'.
AveragePathGaindBRequiredVector

Average gains of the discrete paths, expressed in dB.

PathDelaysRequiredVector

Delays of the discrete paths, expressed in seconds. This vector must have the same size as AveragePathGaindB.

The following fields are required when MIMOCorrelation is set to 'Custom'.
TxCorrelationMatrixRequiredMatrix

Correlation between each of the transmit antennas, specified as a P-by-P complex matrix.

RxCorrelationMatrixRequiredMatrix

Correlation between each of the receive antennas, specified as a complex matrix of size NRxAnts-by-NRxAnts.

Data Types: struct

in — Input samplesnumeric matrix

Input samples, specified as a numeric matrix of size T-by-P. Where P is the number of transmit antennas and T is the number of time-domain samples. Each column of in corresponds to the waveform at each of the transmit antennas.

Data Types: double | single
Complex Number Support: Yes

Output Arguments

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out — Channel output signalnumeric matrix

Channel output signal, returned as a numeric matrix. Each column of out corresponds to the waveform at each of the receive antennas. out has the same number of rows as the input, in.

Data Types: double | single
Complex Number Support: Yes

info — Channel modeling informationstructure

Channel modeling information, returned as a structure. info contains the following fields.

Parameter FieldValuesDescription
ChannelFilterDelay

Scalar value

The implementation delay of the internal channel filtering

PathGains

Numeric array

Complex gain of the discrete channel paths specified as a numeric array of size T-by-L-by-P-by-NRxAnts. Where T is the number of output samples, L is the number of paths, P is the number of transmit antennas, and NRxAnts is the number of receive antennas

PathSampleDelays

Row vector

Delays of the discrete channel paths. The delays are expressed in samples at the sampling rate specified in model.SamplingRate.

Data Types: struct

References

[1] 3GPP TS 36.101. "User Equipment (UE) Radio Transmission and Reception." 3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical Specification Group Radio Access Network; Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA). URL: http://www.3gpp.org.

[2] 3GPP TS 36.104. "Base Station (BS) radio transmission and reception." 3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical Specification Group Radio Access Network; Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA). URL: http://www.3gpp.org.

[3] Dent, P., G. E. Bottomley, and T. Croft. "Jakes Fading Model Revisited." Electronics Letters. Vol. 29, 1993, Number 13, pp. 1162–1163.

[4] Pätzold, Matthias, Cheng-Xiang Wang, and Bjørn Olav Hogstad. "Two New Sum-of-Sinusoids-Based Methods for the Efficient Generation of Multiple Uncorrelated Rayleigh Fading Waveforms." IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications. Vol. 8, 2009, Number 6, pp. 3122–3131.

Introduced in R2013b

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