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# ltePRACH

Physical random access channel

## Syntax

``[waveform,info]=ltePRACH(ue,chs)``

## Description

example

````[waveform,info]=ltePRACH(ue,chs)` returns a column vector, `waveform`, containing complex symbols of the Physical Random Access Channel given UE-specific settings structure, `ue`, and channel transmission configuration structure, `chs`. PRACH information is returned in a structure, `info`, as described in `ltePRACHInfo`. `waveform` is N-by-1, where N=`info``.``SamplingRate`×`info``.``TotSubframes`×0.001, and contains the time-domain PRACH signal spanning `info``.``TotSubframes`, as described in TS 211, Section 5.7 [2]. The waveform consists of a period of zeros (for the case of a time offset or Preamble Format 4), a cyclic prefix, the "useful" part of the PRACH signal, and a period of zeros to extend the waveform to span `info``.``TotSubframes`. The duration of the PRACH is a function of the Preamble Format as described in TS 36.211, Table 5.7.1-1 [2]. Depending on the configuration given in `ue` and `chs`, it is possible that no PRACH are generated; in this case `info``.``PRBSet` is empty to signal this condition, and `waveform` consists of all zeros. The conditions under which no PRACH are generated are described in the help for `ltePRACHInfo`. `chs``.PreambleIdx` can be a vector in the functions `ltePRACHInfo` and `ltePRACHDetect`. This assists with modelling of an eNodeB receiver searching for multiple preambles. However, this function, `ltePRACH` only generates a single PRACH and therefore `chs``.PreambleIdx` should be a scalar. If `chs``.PreambleIdx` is a vector, the first element is used. By default, for the given `ue``.NULRB`, the `waveform` output, is sampled at the same sampling rate as other uplink channels (PUCCH, PUSCH, and SRS) using the `lteSCFDMAModulate` modulator.If the value of `chs``.PreambleIdx` is such that an insufficient quantity of cyclic shifts are available at the configured logical root index, `chs``.SeqIdx`, the logical root index number needs to be incremented. As such, the physical root used, `info``.``RootSeq`, differs from the physical root configured by `chs``.SeqIdx`. The cyclic shift corresponding to `chs``.PreambleIdx` can be found in `info``.``CyclicShift`. For High Speed mode, when `info``.``CyclicShift` = –1, the PRACH waveform is generated with no cyclic shift.```

## Examples

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This example generates PRACH symbols of format 0 in an ue.NULRB=9 bandwidth, leaving all other parameters at their default values.

Initialize ue-specific settings and channel transmission configuration.

```ue.DuplexMode = 'FDD'; ue.NULRB = 6; chs.Format = 0; chs.HighSpeed = 0; chs.CyclicShiftIdx = 0; chs.FreqOffset = 0; chs.SeqIdx = 0; chs.PreambleIdx = [ 0 ]; ```

Generate PRACH symbols and PRACH info.

```[prachSym,prachInfo] = ltePRACH(ue,chs); prachInfo ```
```prachInfo = struct with fields: NZC: 839 SubcarrierSpacing: 1250 Phi: 7 K: 12 TotSubframes: 1 Fields: [0 3168 24576 2976] PRBSet: [6×1 double] NCS: 0 CyclicShift: 0 RootSeq: 129 SamplingRate: 1920000 BaseOffset: 0 ```

## Input Arguments

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UE-specific settings, specified as a scalar structure. `ue` can contain the following fields.

Parameter FieldRequired or OptionalValuesDescription
`NULRB`Required

Scalar integer from 6 to 110

Number of uplink resource blocks. (${N}_{\text{RB}}^{\text{UL}}$)

`DuplexMode`Optional

`'FDD'` (default), `'TDD'`

Duplexing mode, specified as:

• `'FDD'` for Frequency Division Duplex or

• `'TDD'` for Time Division Duplex

The following parameters are applicable when `DuplexMode` is set to `'TDD'`.

`TDDConfig`Optional

0 (default), 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

`SSC`Optional

0 (default), 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Special subframe configuration (SSC)

The following parameter fields is applicable when `DuplexMode` is set to `'TDD'` or when `chs``.``ConfigIdx` is present.

`NSubframe`Optional

0 (default), Nonnegative scalar integer

Subframe number

`NFrame`Optional

0 (default), nonnegative scalar integer

Frame number

The following parameter fields are dependent upon the condition that the Preamble Format (`chs``.``Format`) is set to `'4'`.

`CyclicPrefix`Optional

`'Normal'` (default), `'Extended'`

Cyclic prefix length

Data Types: `struct`

Channel transmission configuration, specified as a scalar structure. `chs` can contain the following fields.

Parameter FieldRequired or OptionalValuesDescription
`Format`Optional

0, 1, 2, 3, 4 (default is determined by `ConfigIdx` field if present). However, the `Format` field must be specified if the `ConfigIdx` field is not specified.

Preamble format

See Note: 1.
`SeqIdx`Optional

Scalar integer from 0 to 837. The default value is 0.

Logical root sequence index (RACH_ROOT_SEQUENCE)

`ConfigIdx`Optional

Scalar integer from 0 to 63. The default value default value is determined by `Format` field, if present. However, the `ConfigIdx` field must be specified if the `Format` field is not specified.

PRACH Configuration Index (prach-ConfigurationIndex)

See Note: 1.
`PreambleIdx`Optional

Scalar integer or vector of integers from 0 to 63. The default value is 0.

Preamble index within cell (ra-PreambleIndex)

`CyclicShiftIdx`Optional

Scalar integer from 0 to 15. The default value is 0.

Cyclic shift configuration index (zeroCorrelationZoneConfig, yields NCS)

`HighSpeed`Optional

0 (default) or 1

High Speed flag (highSpeedFlag). A value of 1 signifies a restricted set. A value of 0 signifies an unrestricted set.

`TimingOffset`Optional

0.0 (default), Numeric scalar

PRACH timing offset, in microseconds

See Note: 2.

The following parameters are applicable when `ue``.``DuplexMode` is set to `'TDD'`.

`FreqIdx`Optional

0 (default), 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Frequency resource index (fRA). Only required for `'TDD'` duplexing mode.

The following parameter fields are dependent upon the condition that the Preamble Format (`chs``.``Format`) is set to `0, 1, 2, or 3`.

`FreqOffset`Optional

Scalar integer from 0 to 94. The default value is 0.

PRACH frequency offset (nPRBoffset). Only required for Preamble format 0–3.

 Note:   Although the parameters `chs``.Format` and `chs``.ConfigIdx` are both described as ‘Optional', at least one of these parameters must be specified. If both parameters are present then `chs``.Format` is used and `chs``.ConfigIdx` is ignored.The parameter `chs``.TimingOffset` is not a genuine parameter of the PRACH generation as defined in the standard. It is provided to allow easy generation of a delayed PRACH output for use in testing, to simulate the effect of the distance between UE and eNodeB. The maximum value of `chs``.TimingOffset` that yields a complete PRACH transmission in the output `waveform` is a timing offset equal to the duration of the last field of `info``.``Fields`; this timing offset corresponds to the maximum cell size and hence maximum distance between UE and eNodeB. If this maximum timing offset is exceeded, part of the PRACH signal is lost. The end of the useful part of the PRACH signal is out with the span of `waveform`.

Data Types: `struct`

## Output Arguments

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PRACH waveform symbols, returned as a complex-valued numeric column vector. It has size N-by-1, where N = (`info``.SamplingRate` × `info``.``TotSubframes` × 0.001). It contains the time-domain PRACH signal spanning `info``.``TotSubframes`.

Data Types: `double`
Complex Number Support: Yes

PRACH information, returned as a scalar structure. It contains the following fields.

Zadoff-Chu sequence length, returned as a positive integer. (${N}_{\text{ZC}}$)

Data Types: `double`

Subcarrier spacing of PRACH preamble, in Hz, returned as a positive integer. (deltaf_RA)

Data Types: `double`

Frequency-domain location offset, returned as a positive integer. (phi)

Data Types: `double`

Ratio of uplink data to PRACH subcarrier spacing, returned as a numeric scalar. (K)

Data Types: `double`

Number of subframes duration of the PRACH, returned as a numeric scalar. Each subframe lasts 30720 fundamental periods, therefore `TotSubframes` is `ceil(sum(Fields)/30720)`, the number of subframes required to hold the entire PRACH waveform. The duration of the PRACH is a function of the Preamble Format as described in TS 36.211, Table 5.7.1-1 [2].

Data Types: `double`

PRACH field lengths, returned as a 1-by-4 numeric vector. The elements are [OFFSET T_CP T_SEQ GUARD]. T_CP and T_SEQ are the lengths in fundamental time periods (T_s), of cyclic prefix and PRACH sequence, respectively. OFFSET is the number of fundamental time periods from the start of configured subframe to the start of the cyclic prefix, and is nonzero only for TDD special subframes. GUARD is the number of fundamental time periods from the end of the PRACH sequence to the end of the number of subframes spanned by the PRACH.

Data Types: `double`

PRBs occupied by PRACH preamble, returned as a nonnegative integer column vector. (starts at ${N}_{\text{PRB}}$, 0-based).

• An empty `info.PRBSet` indicates that the PRACH is not present and the waveform generated by ltePRACH consists of all zeros.

• An `info.PRBSet` that contains six consecutive Physical Resource Block numbers indicates the frequency domain location of the PRACH.

 Note:   The PRACH uses a different SC-FDMA symbol construction from the other channels (PUCCH, PUSCH and SRS) and therefore the PRBSet indicates the frequency range (180kHz per RB) that the PRACH occupies, it does not occupy the set of 12 subcarriers in each RB in the same fashion as other channels. The PRACH occupies a bandwidth approximately equal to 1.08MHz = 6RBs.

Data Types: `uint32`

Length of zero correlation zone plus 1, specified as a positive integer (N_CS). `NCS` corresponds to the complete extent of autocorrelation lags (0 and N_CS–1 nonzero) that exhibit perfect correlation properties (1 at 0 lag, 0 at nonzero lags). `NCS` is expressed directly, as in the standard, related to the fundamental Zadoff-Chu sequence construction. The actual sample span of the zero correlation zone in the waveform generated by `ltePRACH` is a function of the sampling rate.

Data Types: `double`

Cyclic shift or shifts of Zadoff-Chu sequence, returned as a numeric row vector. (C_v). For High Speed mode, any element of `CyclicShift` equal to –1 indicates that there are no cyclic shifts in the restricted set for the corresponding preamble index.

Data Types: `double`

Physical root Zadoff-Chu sequence index or indices, returned as a numeric row vector. (u)

Data Types: `double`

Cyclic shift or shifts corresponding to Doppler Shift of (1/T_SEQ), returned as a vector. This parameter is present for High Speed mode. (d_u)

Data Types: `double`

Sampling rate of the PRACH modulator, returned as a numeric scalar.

Data Types: `double`

Base timing offset, in microseconds, returned as a numeric scalar. This parameter field is used for the detection test in TS 36.104 [1]. (duration of N_CS/2)

Data Types: `double`

Data Types: `struct`

## References

[1] 3GPP TS 36.104. "Base Station (BS) radio transmission and reception." 3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical Specification Group Radio Access Network; Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA). URL: http://www.3gpp.org.

[2] 3GPP TS 36.211. "Physical Channels and Modulation." 3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical Specification Group Radio Access Network; Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA). URL: http://www.3gpp.org.