*Azimuth* is the angle a line makes with
a meridian, measured clockwise from north. Thus the azimuth of due
north is 0º, due east is 90º, due south is 180º, and
due west is 270º. You can instruct several Mapping Toolbox™ functions
to compute azimuths for any pair of point locations, either along
rhumb lines or along great circles. These will have different results
except along cardinal directions. For great circles, the result is
the azimuth at the initial point of the pair defining a great circle
path. This is because great circle azimuths other than 0º, 90º,
180º, and 270º do not remain constant. Azimuths for rhumb
lines are constant along their entire path (by definition).

For rhumb lines, computing an azimuth backward (from the second point to the first) yields the complement of the forward azimuth ((Az + 180º) mod 360º). For great circles, the back azimuth is generally not the complement, and the difference depends on the distance between the two points.

In addition to forward and back azimuths, Mapping Toolbox functions can compute locations of points a given distance and azimuth from a reference point, and can calculate tracks to connect waypoints, along either great circles or rhumb lines on a sphere or ellipsoid.

A common problem in geographic applications is the determination
of a destination given a starting point, an initial azimuth, and a
distance. In the toolbox, this process is called *reckoning*.
A new position can be reckoned in a great circle or a rhumb line sense
(great circle or rhumb line track).

As an example, an airplane takes off from La Guardia Airport in New York (40.75ºN, 73.9ºW) and follows a northwestern rhumb line flight path at 200 knots (nautical miles per hour). Where would it be after 1 hour?

[rhlat,rhlong] = reckon('rh',40.75,-73.9,nm2deg(200),315) rhlat = 43.1054 rhlong = -77.0665

Notice that the distance, 200 nautical miles, must be converted
to degrees of arc length with the `nm2deg`

conversion
function to match the latitude and longitude inputs. If the airplane
had a flight computer that allowed it to follow an exact great circle
path, what would the aircraft's new location be?

[gclat,gclong] = reckon('gc',40.75,-73.9,nm2deg(200),315) gclat = 43.0615 gclong = -77.1238

Notice also that for short distances at these latitudes, the result hardly differs between great circle and rhumb line. The two destination points are less than 4 nautical miles apart. Incidentally, after 1 hour, the airplane would be just north of New York's Finger Lakes.

You can generate vector data corresponding to points along great
circle or rhumb line tracks using `track1`

and `track2`

.
If you have a point on the track and an azimuth at that point, use `track1`

.
If you have two points on the track, use `track2`

.
For example, to get the great circle path starting at (31ºS,
90ºE) with an azimuth of 45º with a length of 12º,
use `track1`

:

[latgc,longc] = track1('gc',-31,90,45,12);

For the great circle from (31ºS, 90ºE) to (23ºS,
110ºE), use `track2`

:

[latgc,longc] = track2('gc',-31,90,-23,110);

The `track1`

function also allows you to
specify range endpoints. For example, if you want points along a rhumb
line starting 5º away from the initial point and ending 13º
away, at an azimuth of 55º, simply specify the range limits:

[latrh,lonrh] = track1('rh',-31,90,55,[5 13]);

When no range is provided for `track1`

, the
returned points represent a *complete track*. For
great circles, a complete track is 360º, encircling the planet
and returning to the initial point. For rhumb lines, the complete
track terminates at the poles, unless the azimuth is 90º or 270º,
in which case the complete track is a parallel that returns to the
initial point.

For calculated tracks, 100 points are returned unless otherwise
specified. You can calculate several tracks at one time by providing
vector inputs. For more information, see the `track1`

and `track2`

reference pages. More vector path
calculations are described later in Navigation.

When Mapping Toolbox functions calculate the distance between
two points in geographic space, the result depends upon whether you
specify great circle or rhumb line distance. The `distance`

function
returns the appropriate distance between two points as an angular
arc length, employing the same angular units as the input latitudes
and longitudes. The default path type is the shorter great circle,
and the default angular units are degrees. The previous figure shows
two points at (15ºS, 0º) and (60ºN, 150ºE). The
great circle distance between them, in degrees of arc, is as follows:

distgc = distance(-15,0,60,150) distgc = 129.9712

The rhumb line distance is greater:

distrh = distance('rh',-15,0,60,150) distrh = 145.0288

To determine how much longer the rhumb line path is in, say, kilometers, you can use a distance conversion function on the difference:

kmdifference = deg2km(distrh-distgc) kmdifference = 1.6744e+03

Several distance conversion functions are available in the toolbox, supporting degrees, radians, kilometers, meters, statute miles, nautical miles, and feet. Converting distances between angular arc length units and surface length units requires the radius of a planet or spheroid. By default, the radius of the Earth is used.

*Azimuth* is the angle a line makes with
a meridian, taken clockwise from north. When the azimuth is calculated
from one point to another using the toolbox, the result depends upon
whether you want a great circle or a rhumb line azimuth. For great
circles, the result is the azimuth at the starting point of the connecting
great circle path. In general, the azimuth along a great circle is
not constant. For rhumb lines, the resulting azimuth is constant along
the entire path.

Azimuths, or bearings, are returned in the same angular units as the input latitudes and longitudes. The default path type is the shorter great circle, and the default angular units are degrees. In the example, the great circle azimuth from the first point to the second is

azgc = azimuth(-15,0,60,150) azgc = 19.0391

For the rhumb line, the constant azimuth is

azrh = azimuth('rh',-15,0,60,150) azrh = 58.8595

One feature of rhumb lines is that the inverse azimuth, from the second point to the first, is the complement of the forward azimuth and can be calculated by simply adding 180º to the forward value:

inverserh = azimuth('rh',60,150,-15,0) inverserh = 238.8595 difference = inverserh-azrh difference = 180

This is not true, in general, of great circles:

inversegc = azimuth('gc',60,150,-15,0) inversegc = 320.9353 difference = inversegc-azgc difference = 301.8962

The azimuths associated with cardinal and intercardinal compass directions are the following:

North | 0º or 360º |

Northeast | 45º |

East | 90º |

Southeast | 135º |

South | 180º |

Southwest | 225º |

West | 270º |

Northwest | 315º |

*Elevation* is the angle above the local
horizontal of one point relative to the other. To compute the elevation
angle of a second point as viewed from the first, provide the position
and altitude of the points. The default units are degrees for latitudes
and longitudes and meters for altitudes, but you can specify other
units for each. What are the elevation, slant range, and azimuth of
a point 10 kilometers east and 10 kilometers above a surface point?

[elevang,slantrange,azim] = elevation(0,0,0,0,km2deg(10),10000) elevang = 44.9005 slantrange = 1.4156e+004 azim = 90

On an ellipsoid, azimuths returned from `elevation`

generally
will differ from those returned by `azimuth`

and `distance`

.

In solid geometry, the area of a spherical quadrangle can be
exactly calculated. A spherical quadrangle is the intersection of
a *lune* and a *zone*. In geographic
terms, a *quadrangle* is defined as a region bounded
by parallels north and south, and meridians east and west.

In the pictured example, a quadrangle is formed by the intersection
of a zone, which is the region bounded by 15ºN and 45ºN
latitudes, and a *lune*, which is the region
bounded by 0º and 30ºE longitude. Under the spherical planet
assumption, the fraction of the entire spherical surface area inscribed
in the quadrangle can be calculated:

area = areaquad(15,0,45,30) area = 0.0187

That is, less than 2% of the planet's surface area is in this quadrangle. To get an absolute figure in, for example, square miles, you must provide the appropriate spherical radius. The radius of the Earth is about 3958.9 miles:

area = areaquad(15,0,45,30,3958.9) area = 3.6788e+06

The surface area within this quadrangle is over 3.6 million square miles for a spherical Earth.

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