This map display is not a true map projection. It is constructed by calculating a three-dimensional frame and displaying the map objects on the surface of this frame.
In the three-dimensional sense, globe is true in scale, equal-area, conformal, minimum error, and equidistant everywhere. When displayed, however, it looks like an Orthographic azimuthal projection, provided that the MATLAB® axes Projection property is set to 'orthographic'.
This is the only three-dimensional representation provided for display. Unless some other display purpose requires three dimensions, the Orthographic projection's display is equivalent.