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This topic explains how to store or access extra parameters
for mathematical functions that you pass to MATLAB^{®} *function
functions*, such as `fzero`

or `integral`

.

MATLAB function functions evaluate mathematical expressions
over a range of values. They are called function functions because
they are functions that accept a function handle (a pointer to a function)
as an input. Each of these functions expects that your objective function
has a specific number of input variables. For example, `fzero`

and `integral`

accept
handles to functions that have exactly one input variable.

Suppose you want to find the zero of the cubic polynomial *x*^{3} `+`

*bx* `+`

*c* for
different values of the coefficients *b* and *c*.
Although you could create a function that accepts three input variables
(*x*, *b*, and *c*),
you cannot pass a function handle that requires all three of those
inputs to `fzero`

. However, you can take advantage
of properties of anonymous or nested functions to define values for
additional inputs.

One approach for defining parameters is to use a *nested
function*—a function completely contained within
another function in a program file. For this example, create a file
named `findzero.m`

that contains a parent function `findzero`

and
a nested function `poly`

:

function y = findzero(b,c,x0) y = fzero(@poly,x0); function y = poly(x) y = x^3 + b*x + c; end end

The nested function defines the cubic polynomial with one input
variable, `x`

. The parent function accepts the parameters `b`

and `c`

as
input values. The reason to nest `poly`

within `findzero`

is
that nested functions share the workspace of their parent functions.
Therefore, the `poly`

function can access the values
of `b`

and `c`

that you pass to `findzero`

.

To find a zero of the polynomial with `b = 2`

and ```
c
= 3.5
```

, using the starting point `x0 = 0`

,
you can call `findzero`

from the command line:

x = findzero(2,3.5,0)

x = -1.0945

Another approach for accessing extra parameters is to use an *anonymous
function*. Anonymous functions are functions that you can
define in a single command, without creating a separate program file.
They can use any variables that are available in the current workspace.

For example, create a handle to an anonymous function that describes the cubic polynomial, and find the zero:

b = 2; c = 3.5; cubicpoly = @(x) x^3 + b*x + c; x = fzero(cubicpoly,0)

x = -1.0945

Variable `cubicpoly`

is a function handle for
an anonymous function that has one input, `x`

. Inputs
for anonymous functions appear in parentheses immediately following
the `@`

symbol that creates the function handle.
Because `b`

and `c`

are in the workspace
when you create `cubicpoly`

, the anonymous function
does not require inputs for those coefficients.

You do not need to create an intermediate variable, `cubicpoly`

,
for the anonymous function. Instead, you can include the entire definition
of the function handle within the call to `fzero`

:

b = 2; c = 3.5; x = fzero(@(x) x^3 + b*x + c,0)

x = -1.0945

You also can use anonymous functions to call more complicated
objective functions that you define in a function file. For example,
suppose you have a file named `cubicpoly.m`

with
this function definition:

function y = cubicpoly(x,b,c) y = x^3 + b*x + c; end

At the command line, define `b`

and `c`

,
and then call `fzero`

with an anonymous function
that invokes `cubicpoly`

:

b = 2; c = 3.5; x = fzero(@(x) cubicpoly(x,b,c),0)

x = -1.0945

To change the values of the parameters, you must create a new anonymous function. For example:

b = 10; c = 25; x = fzero(@(x) x^3 + b*x + c,0);