You can pass singular Java^{®} objects to and from methods or you can pass them in an array, providing the method expects them in that form. This array must either be a Java array (returned from another method call or created within the MATLAB^{®}) or, under certain circumstances, a MATLAB cell array. This section describes how to create and manipulate Java arrays in MATLAB. Later sections describe how to use MATLAB cell arrays in calls to Java methods.
Note:
The term dimension refers to the number
of subscripts required to address the elements of an array. Dimension
is not a measure of length, width, and height. For example, a |
The term Java array refers to any
array of Java objects returned from a call to a Java class
constructor or method. You can also construct a Java array within MATLAB using
the javaArray
function. The
structure of a Java array is different from the structure of
a MATLAB matrix or array. MATLAB hides these
differences whenever possible, allowing you to operate on the arrays
using the usual MATLAB command syntax. Just the same, keep in
mind the following differences as you work with Java arrays.
An array in the Java language is strictly a one-dimensional structure because it is measured only in length. If you want to work with a two-dimensional array, you can create an equivalent structure using an array of arrays. To add further dimensions, you add more levels to the array, making it an array of arrays of arrays, and so on. You can use such multilevel arrays when working in MATLAB, as it is a matrix and array-based programming language.
MATLAB makes it easy for you to work with multilevel Java arrays by treating them like the matrices and multidimensional arrays that are a part of the language itself. You access elements of an array of arrays using the same MATLAB syntax that you use if you are handling a matrix. If you add more levels to the array, MATLAB can access and operate on the structure as if it is a multidimensional MATLAB array.
The left side of the following figure shows Java arrays of one, two, and three dimensions. To the right of each representation is the same array represented in MATLAB. Single-dimension arrays are represented as column vectors.
Java array indexing is different than MATLAB array
indexing. Java array indices are zero-based, MATLAB array
indices are one-based. In Java programming, you access the elements
of array y
of length N
using y[0]
through y[N-1]
.
When working with this array in MATLAB, you access these same
elements using the MATLAB indexing style of y(1)
through y(N)
.
Thus, if you have a Java array of 10 elements, the seventh element
is obtained using y(7)
, and not y[6]
as
you use when writing a Java language program.
A Java array can be different from a MATLAB array in its overall shape. A two-dimensional MATLAB array maintains a rectangular shape, as each row is of equal length and each column of equal height. The Java counterpart, an array of arrays, does not necessarily hold to this rectangular form. Each individual lower level array might have a different length.
The following picture shows an array of three underlying arrays of different lengths. The terms jagged or ragged are commonly used to describe this arrangement of array elements as the array ends do not match up evenly. When a Java method returns an array with this type of structure, it is stored in a cell array by MATLAB.
Calling the MATLAB size
function on
a Java array returns the length of the Java array. The number
of columns is always 1.
Determining the size of a Java array of arrays is not so simple. The potentially ragged shape of an array returned from a Java method makes it impossible to size the array in the same way as for a rectangular matrix. In a ragged Java array, there is no single value that represents the size of the lower-level arrays.
When the size
function
is applied to a Java array of arrays, the resulting value describes
the top level of the specified array. For the Java array:
size(A)
returns the dimensions of the highest
array level of A. The highest level of the array has a size of 3
-by-1
.
size(A)
ans = 3 1
To find the size of a lower-level array, say the five-element array in row 3, refer to the row explicitly.
size(A(3))
ans = 5 1
You can specify a dimension in the size
command
using the following syntax. However, this is useful only for sizing
the first dimension, dim=1
, the only non-unary
dimension.
m = size(X,dim) size(A, 1)
ans = 3
The MATLAB ndims
function always returns
a value of 2 for the number of dimensions in a Java array. This
is the number of dimensions in the top-level array.
To call a Java method that has one or more arguments defined as an array of Java objects, you must, under most circumstances, pass your objects in a Java array. You can construct an array of objects in a call to a Java method or constructor. Or you can create the array within MATLAB.
The MATLAB javaArray
function lets
you create a Java array structure that can be handled in MATLAB as
a single multidimensional array. You specify the number and size of
the array dimensions along with the class of objects you intend to
store in it. Using the one-dimensional Java array as its primary
building block, MATLAB then builds an array structure that satisfies
the dimensions requested in the javaArray
command.
javaArray
FunctionTo create a Java object array, use the MATLAB javaArray
function, which has the following
syntax:
A = javaArray('element_class', m, n, p, ...)
The first argument is 'element_class'
, which
names the class of the elements in the array. Specify the fully qualified
name (package and class name). The remaining arguments (m,
n, p, ...
) are the number of elements in each dimension
of the array.
An array that you create with javaArray
is
equivalent to the array that you create with the Java code.
A = new element_class[m][n][p]...;
The following command builds a Java array of four lower-level
arrays, each capable of holding five objects of the java.lang.Double
class.
dblArray = javaArray('java.lang.Double',4,5);
The javaArray
function does not deposit
any values into the array elements that it creates. You must do this
separately. The following MATLAB code stores objects of the java.lang.Double
type
in the Java array dblArray
that was created.
for m = 1:4 for n = 1:5 dblArray(m,n) = java.lang.Double((m*10) + n); end end dblArray
dblArray = java.lang.Double[][]: [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [41] [42] [43] [44] [45]
You also can create an array of Java objects using syntax
that is more typical to MATLAB. For example, the following syntax
creates a 4
-by-5
MATLAB array
of type double and assigns zero to each element of the array.
matlabArr(4,5) = 0;
You use similar syntax to create a Java array in MATLAB,
except that you specify the Java class name. The value being
assigned, 0
in this example, is stored in the final
element of the array, javaArr(4,5)
. All other elements
of the array receive the empty matrix.
javaArr(4,5) = java.lang.Double(0)
javaArr = java.lang.Double[][]: [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [0]
Note: You cannot change the number of dimensions of an existing Java array as you can with a MATLAB array. The same restriction exists when working with Java arrays in the Java language. See the following example. |
This example first creates a scalar MATLAB array, and then changes it to a 2D array.
matlabArr = 0; matlabArr(4,5) = 0
matlabArr = 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
When you try this technique with a Java array, you get an error message.
javaArr = java.lang.Double(0); javaArr(4,5) = java.lang.Double(0);
Index exceeds Java array dimensions.
Similarly, you cannot create an array of Java arrays from a Java array.
You can access elements of a Java object array by using
the MATLAB array indexing syntax, A(row,col)
.
For example, to access the element of array dblArray
at
row 3
, column 4
, use:
row3_col4 = dblArray(3,4)
row3_col4 = 34.0
To access this element in a Java language program, use dblArray[2][3]
.
You also can use MATLAB array
indexing syntax to access an element in the data field of an object.
Suppose that myMenuObj
is an instance of a window
menu class. This user-supplied class has a data field, menuItemArray
,
which is a Java array of java.awt.menuItem
.
To get element 3
of this array, use the following
command.
currentItem = myMenuObj.menuItemArray(3)
Elements of a MATLAB matrix are most commonly referenced
using both row and column subscripts. For example, you use x(3,4)
to
reference the array element at the intersection of row 3 and column
4. Sometimes it is more advantageous to use just a single subscript. MATLAB provides
this capability (see the section on Linear Indexing in MATLAB Mathematics).
Indexing into a MATLAB matrix using a single subscript
references one element of the matrix. Using the MATLAB matrix
shown here, matlabArr
(3
) returns
a single element of the matrix.
matlabArr = [11 12 13 14 15; 21 22 23 24 25; ...
31 32 33 34 35; 41 42 43 44 45]
matlabArr = 11 12 13 14 15 21 22 23 24 25 31 32 33 34 35 41 42 43 44 45
matlabArr(3)
ans = 31
Indexing this way into a Java array of arrays references
an entire subarray of the overall structure. Using the dblArray
Java array,
that looks the same as matlabArr
, dblArray(3)
returns
the 5
-by-1
array that makes
up the entire third row.
row3 = dblArray(3)
row3 = java.lang.Double[]: [31] [32] [33] [34] [35]
This feature allows you to specify an entire array from a larger array structure, and then manipulate it as an object.
Use of the MATLAB colon
operator (:
)
is supported in subscripting Java array references. This operator
works just the same as when referencing the contents of a MATLAB array.
Using the Java array of java.lang.Double
objects
shown here, the statement dblArray(2,2:4)
refers
to a portion of the lower-level array, dblArray(2)
.
A new array, row2Array
, is created from the elements
in columns 2 through 4.
dblArray
dblArray = java.lang.Double[][]: [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [41] [42] [43] [44] [45]
row2Array = dblArray(2,2:4)
row2Array = java.lang.Double[]: [22] [23] [24]
You also can use the colon operator in single-subscript indexing,
as covered in Single Subscript Indexing. By making
your subscript a colon rather than a number, you can convert an array
of arrays into one linear array. The following example converts the 4
-by-5
array dblArray
into
a 20
-by-1
linear array.
linearArray = dblArray(:)
linearArray = java.lang.Double[]: [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [21] [22] . . .
This method also works on an N-dimensional Java array structure. Using the colon operator as a single subscripted index into the array produces a linear array composed of all of the elements of the original array.
Note:
Java and MATLAB arrays are stored differently in memory.
This is reflected in the order they are given in a linear array. Java array
elements are stored in an order that matches the rows of
the matrix ( |
You can use the end
keyword in the first
subscript of an access statement. The first subscript references the
top-level array in a multilevel Java array structure.
Note:
Using |
The following example displays data from the third to the last
row of Java array dblArray
.
last2rows = dblArray(3:end, :)
last2rows = java.lang.Double[][]: [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [41] [42] [43] [44] [45]
java.lang.Object
Arrays Are Converted to MATLAB TypesWhen you access an element of a java.lang.Object
array, MATLAB converts
the element to a MATLAB type, according to the table in Conversion of Java Object Return Types. MATLAB does
not convert elements of any other type of Java array.
For example, if a java.lang.Object
array
contains a java.lang.Double
element, MATLAB converts
the element to MATLAB double
. But MATLAB does
not convert a java.lang.Double
element in a java.lang.Double
array; MATLAB returns
it as java.lang.Double
.
You assign values to objects in a Java array in essentially the same way as you do in a MATLAB array. Although Java and MATLAB arrays are structured differently, you use the same command syntax to specify which elements you want to assign to. See Introduction for more information on Java and MATLAB array differences.
The following example assigns the value 300
in
the dblArray
element at row 3
,
column 2
. In a Java language program, this
is dblArray[2][1]
.
dblArray(3,2) = java.lang.Double(300)
dblArray = java.lang.Double[][]: [11] [ 12] [13] [14] [15] [21] [ 22] [23] [24] [25] [31] [300] [33] [34] [35] [41] [ 42] [43] [44] [45]
Use the same syntax to assign to an element to the data field
of an object. Continuing with the myMenuObj
example
shown in Accessing Elements of a Java Array,
assign to the third menu item in menuItemArray
as
follows.
myMenuObj.menuItemArray(3) = java.lang.String('Save As...');
You can use a single-array subscript to index into a Java array structure that has more than one dimension. Refer to Single Subscript Indexing for a description of this feature as used with Java arrays.
You can use single-subscript indexing to assign values to an
array as well. The following example assigns a one-dimensional Java array, onedimArray
,
to a row of a two-dimensional Java array, dblArray
.
Start out by creating the one-dimensional array.
onedimArray = javaArray('java.lang.Double', 5); for k = 1:5 onedimArray(k) = java.lang.Double(100 * k); end
Since dblArray(3)
refers to the 5
-by-1
array
displayed in the third row of dblArray
, you can
assign the entire, similarly dimensioned, 5
-by-1
onedimArray
to
it.
dblArray(3) = onedimArray
dblArray = java.lang.Double[][]: [ 11] [ 12] [ 13] [ 14] [ 15] [ 21] [ 22] [ 23] [ 24] [ 25] [100] [200] [300] [400] [500] [ 41] [ 42] [ 43] [ 44] [ 45]
You can assign a value to every element
of a multidimensional Java array by treating the array structure
as if it were a single linear array. This entails replacing the single,
numerical subscript with the MATLAB colon operator. If you start
with the dblArray
array, you can initialize the
contents of every object in the two-dimensional array with the following
statement.
dblArray(:) = java.lang.Double(0)
dblArray = java.lang.Double[][]: [0] [0] [0] [0] [0] [0] [0] [0] [0] [0] [0] [0] [0] [0] [0] [0] [0] [0] [0] [0]
You
can use the MATLAB colon operator as you would when working with MATLAB arrays.
The following statements assign given values to each of the four
rows in the Java array, dblArray
. Remember
that each row actually represents a separate Java array in itself.
dblArray(1,:) = java.lang.Double(125); dblArray(2,:) = java.lang.Double(250); dblArray(3,:) = java.lang.Double(375); dblArray(4,:) = java.lang.Double(500)
dblArray = java.lang.Double[][]: [125] [125] [125] [125] [125] [250] [250] [250] [250] [250] [375] [375] [375] [375] [375] [500] [500] [500] [500] [500]
When working with MATLAB arrays, you can assign the empty
matrix, (that is, the 0
-by-0
array
denoted by []
) to an element of the array. For Java arrays,
you also can assign []
to array elements. This
stores the null
value, rather than a 0
-by-0
array,
in the Java array element.
When you assign the empty matrix value to an entire row or column
of a MATLAB array, you find that MATLAB actually removes
the affected row or column from the array. In the example below, the
empty matrix is assigned to all elements of the fourth column in the MATLAB matrix, matlabArr
.
Thus, the fourth column is eliminated from the matrix. This changes
its dimensions from 4
-by-5
to 4
-by-4
.
matlabArr = [11 12 13 14 15; 21 22 23 24 25; ...
31 32 33 34 35; 41 42 43 44 45]
matlabArr = 11 12 13 14 15 21 22 23 24 25 31 32 33 34 35 41 42 43 44 45
matlabArr(:,4) = []
matlabArr = 11 12 13 15 21 22 23 25 31 32 33 35 41 42 43 45
You can assign the empty matrix to a Java array, but the
effect is different. The next example shows that, when the same operation
is performed on a Java array, the structure is not collapsed;
it maintains its 4
-by-5
dimensions.
dblArray(:,4) = []
dblArray = java.lang.Double[][]: [125] [125] [125] [] [125] [250] [250] [250] [] [250] [375] [375] [375] [] [375] [500] [500] [500] [] [500]
The dblArray
data structure is actually an
array of five-element arrays of java.lang.Double
objects.
The empty array assignment placed the null
value
in the fourth element of each of the lower-level arrays.
You can concatenate arrays of Java objects in the same way as arrays of other types. Java objects, however, can only be catenated along the first or second axis. To understand how scalar Java objects are concatenated in MATLAB, see Concatenating Java Objects.
Use either the cat
function or the square
bracket ([]
) operators. This example horizontally
concatenates two Java arrays: d1
and d2
.
% Construct a 2-by-3 array of java.lang.Double. d1 = javaArray('java.lang.Double',2,3); for m = 1:2 for n = 1:3 d1(m,n) = java.lang.Double(n*2 + m-1); end end d1
d1 = java.lang.Double[][]: [2] [4] [6] [3] [5] [7]
% Construct a 2-by-2 array of java.lang.Double. d2 = javaArray('java.lang.Double',2,2); for m = 1:2 for n = 1:2 d2(m,n) = java.lang.Double((n+3)*2 + m-1); end end d2
d2 = java.lang.Double[][]: [8] [10] [9] [11]
% Concatenate the two along the second dimension.
d3 = cat(2,d1,d2)
d3 = java.lang.Double[][]: [2] [4] [6] [ 8] [10] [3] [5] [7] [ 9] [11]
Because Java arrays in MATLAB are references, assigning an array variable to another variable results in a second reference to the array.
Consider the following example where two separate array variables
reference a common array. The original array, origArray
,
is created and initialized. The statement newArrayRef = origArray
creates
a copy of this array variable. Changes made to the array referred
to by newArrayRef
also show up in the original
array.
origArray = javaArray('java.lang.Double', 3, 4); for m = 1:3 for n = 1:4 origArray(m,n) = java.lang.Double((m * 10) + n); end end origArray
origArray = java.lang.Double[][]: [11] [12] [13] [14] [21] [22] [23] [24] [31] [32] [33] [34]
% Make a copy of the array reference
newArrayRef = origArray;
newArrayRef(3,:) = java.lang.Double(0);
origArray
origArray = java.lang.Double[][]: [11] [12] [13] [14] [21] [22] [23] [24] [ 0] [ 0] [ 0] [ 0]
You can create an entirely new array from an existing Java array by indexing into the array to describe a block of elements, or subarray, and assigning this subarray to a variable. The assignment copies the values in the original array to the corresponding cells of the new array.
As with the example in section Creating a New Array Reference, an original array is created and initialized. But, this time, a copy is made of the array contents rather than copying the array reference. Changes made using the reference to the new array do not affect the original.
origArray = javaArray('java.lang.Double', 3, 4); for m = 1:3 for n = 1:4 origArray(m,n) = java.lang.Double((m * 10) + n); end end origArray
origArray = java.lang.Double[][]: [11] [12] [13] [14] [21] [22] [23] [24] [31] [32] [33] [34]
% ----- Make a copy of the array contents -----
newArray = origArray(:,:);
newArray(3,:) = java.lang.Double(0);
origArray
origArray = java.lang.Double[][]: [11] [12] [13] [14] [21] [22] [23] [24] [31] [32] [33] [34]