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end

Terminate block of code, or indicate last array index

Syntax

end

Description

end terminates for, while, switch, try, if, and parfor statements. Without an end statement, for, while, switch, try, if, and parfor wait for further input. Each end is paired with the closest previous unpaired for, while, switch, try, if, or parfor and serves to delimit its scope.

end also marks the termination of a function, although in many cases it is optional. If your function contains one or more nested functions, then you must terminate every function in the file, whether nested or not, with end. This includes primary, nested, private, and local functions.

The end function also serves as the last index in an indexing expression. In that context, end = (size(x,k)) when used as part of the kth index. Examples of this use are X(3:end) and X(1,1:2:end-1). When using end to grow an array, as in X(end+1)=5, make sure X exists first.

You can overload the end statement for a user object by defining an end method for the object. The end method should have the calling sequence end(obj,k,n), where obj is the user object, k is the index in the expression where the end syntax is used, and n is the total number of indices in the expression. For example, consider the expression

A(end-1,:)

The MATLAB® software calls the end method defined for A using the syntax

end(A,1,2)

Examples

This example shows end used with the for and if statements.

for k = 1:n
    if a(k) == 0
        a(k) = a(k) + 2;
    end
end

In this example, end is used in an indexing expression.

A = magic(5)

A =

    17    24     1     8    15
    23     5     7    14    16
     4     6    13    20    22
    10    12    19    21     3
    11    18    25     2     9

B = A(end,2:end)

B =

    18    25     2     9

See Also

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