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# ischange

Find abrupt changes in data

## Syntax

``TF = ischange(A)``
``TF = ischange(A,method)``
``TF = ischange(___,dim)``
``TF = ischange(___,Name,Value)``
``[TF,S1] = ischange(___)``
``[TF,S1,S2] = ischange(___)``

## Description

example

````TF = ischange(A)` returns a logical array whose elements are 1 (`true`) when there is an abrupt change in the mean of the corresponding elements of `A`.```

example

````TF = ischange(A,method)` specifies how to define a change point in the data. For example, `ischange(A,'variance')` finds abrupt changes in the variance of the elements of `A`.```

example

````TF = ischange(___,dim)` specifies the dimension of `A` to operate along for either of the previous syntaxes. For example, `ischange(A,2)` computes change points for each row of a matrix `A`.```

example

````TF = ischange(___,Name,Value)` specifies additional parameters for finding change points using one or more name-value pair arguments. For example, `ischange(A,'MaxNumChanges',m)` detects no more than `m` change points.```

example

````[TF,S1] = ischange(___)` also returns information about the line segments in between change points. For example, `[TF,S1] = ischange(A)` returns a vector `S1` containing the mean of data between change points of a vector `A`.```

example

````[TF,S1,S2] = ischange(___)` returns additional information about the line segments in between change points. For example, `[TF,S1,S2] = ischange(A)` returns a vector `S1` that contains the mean for each segment, as well as a vector `S2` that contains the variance for each segment of a vector `A`.```

## Examples

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Create a vector of noisy data, and compute the abrupt changes in the mean of the data.

```A = [ones(1,5) 25*ones(1,5) 50*ones(1,5)] + rand(1,15); TF = ischange(A)```
```TF = 1x15 logical array 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 ```

To compute the mean of the data in between change points, specify a second output argument.

```[TF,S1] = ischange(A); plot(A,'*') hold on stairs(S1) legend('Data','Segment Mean','Location','NW')```

Create a vector of noisy data, and compute abrupt changes in the slope and intercept of the data. Setting a large detection threshold reduces the number of change points detected due to noise.

```A = [zeros(1,100) 1:100 99:-1:50 50*ones(1,250)] + 10*rand(1,500); [TF,S1,S2] = ischange(A,'linear','Threshold',200); segline = S1.*(1:500) + S2; plot(1:500,A,1:500,segline) legend('Data','Linear Regime')```

As an alternative to providing a threshold value, you also can specify the maximum number of change points to detect.

`[TF,S1,S2] = ischange(A,'linear','MaxNumChanges',3);`

Compute abrupt changes in the mean for each row of a matrix.

`A = diag(25*ones(5,1)) + rand(5,5)`
```A = 5×5 25.8147 0.0975 0.1576 0.1419 0.6557 0.9058 25.2785 0.9706 0.4218 0.0357 0.1270 0.5469 25.9572 0.9157 0.8491 0.9134 0.9575 0.4854 25.7922 0.9340 0.6324 0.9649 0.8003 0.9595 25.6787 ```
`TF = ischange(A,2)`
```TF = 5x5 logical array 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 ```

## Input Arguments

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Input data, specified as a vector, matrix, multidimensional array, table, or timetable.

Data Types: `single` | `double` | `table` | `timetable`

Change detection method, specified as one of the following:

• `'mean'` — Find abrupt changes in the mean of the data.

• `'variance'` — Find abrupt changes in the variance of the data.

• `'linear'` — Find abrupt changes in the slope and intercept of the data.

Operating dimension, specified as a positive integer scalar. By default, `ischange` operates along the first dimension whose size does not equal 1.

For example, if `A` is a matrix, then `ischange(A,1)` operates along the rows of `A`, computing change points for each column.

`ischange(A,2)` operates along the columns of `A`, computing change points for each row.

Data Types: `single` | `double` | `int8` | `int16` | `int32` | `int64` | `uint8` | `uint16` | `uint32` | `uint64`

### Name-Value Pair Arguments

Specify optional comma-separated pairs of `Name,Value` arguments. `Name` is the argument name and `Value` is the corresponding value. `Name` must appear inside quotes. You can specify several name and value pair arguments in any order as `Name1,Value1,...,NameN,ValueN`.

Example: `TF = ischange(A,'MaxNumChanges',5)`

Change point threshold, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of `'Threshold'` and a nonnegative scalar. Increasing the threshold greater than 1 produces fewer change points.

The threshold value defines the number of detected change points and cannot be specified when `'MaxNumChanges'` is specified.

Data Types: `double` | `single` | `int8` | `int16` | `int32` | `int64` | `uint8` | `uint16` | `uint32` | `uint64`

Maximum number of change points to detect, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of `'MaxNumChanges'` and a positive integer scalar. `ischange` uses an automatic threshold that computes no more than the specified value of change points, thus `'Threshold'` cannot be specified when `'MaxNumChanges'` is specified.

Data Types: `double` | `single` | `int8` | `int16` | `int32` | `int64` | `uint8` | `uint16` | `uint32` | `uint64`

Table variables, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of `'DataVariables'` and a variable name, a cell array of variable names, a numeric vector, a logical vector, or a function handle. The `'DataVariables'` value indicates which columns of an input table or timetable to operate on, and can be one of the following:

• A character vector specifying a single table variable name

• A cell array of character vectors where each element is a table variable name

• A vector of table variable indices

• A logical vector whose elements each correspond to a table variable, where `true` includes the corresponding variable and `false` excludes it

• A function handle that takes the table as input and returns a logical scalar

The specified table variables must be of type `double` or `single`.

Example: `'Age'`

Example: `{'Height','Weight'}`

Example: `@isnumeric`

Data Types: `char` | `cell` | `logical` | `double` | `single` | `function_handle`

Sample points, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of `'SamplePoints'` and a vector. The sample points represent the location of the data in `A`. Sample points do not need to be uniformly sampled, but must be sorted with unique elements. By default, the sample points vector is ```[1 2 3 ...]```.

`ischange` does not support this name-value pair when the input data is a timetable.

Data Types: `double` | `single` | `int8` | `int16` | `int32` | `int64` | `uint8` | `uint16` | `uint32` | `uint64` | `datetime` | `duration`

## Output Arguments

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Change point indicator, returned as a vector, matrix, or multidimensional array. `TF` is the same size as `A`.

Data Types: `logical`

Mean or slope of data between change points, returned as a vector, matrix, multidimensional array, table, or timetable.

• If the change point detection method is `'mean'` or `'variance'`, then `S1` contains the mean for each segment.

• If the method is `'linear'`, then `S1` contains the slope for each segment.

`s1` has the same type is the input data.

Data Types: `double` | `single` | `table` | `timetable`

Variance or intercept of data between change points, returned as a vector, matrix, multidimensional array, table, or timetable.

• If the change point detection method is `'mean'` or `'variance'`, then `S2` contains the variance for each segment.

• If the method is `'linear'`, then `S2` contains the intercept for each segment.

`s2` has the same type is the input data.

Data Types: `double` | `single` | `table` | `timetable`

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### Change Points

A vector of data A contains a change point if it can be split into two segments A1 and A2 such that

is the threshold value specified by the `'Threshold'` parameter, and C represents a cost function.

For example, the cost function for detecting abrupt changes in the mean is , where N is the number of elements in a vector x. The cost function measures how well a segment is approximated by its mean.

`ischange` iteratively minimizes the sum of the cost functions to determine the number of change points k and their locations such that

## References

[1] Killick R., P. Fearnhead, and I.A. Eckley. "Optimal detection of changepoints with a linear computational cost." Journal of the American Statistical Association. Vol. 107, Number 500, 2012, pp.1590-1598.