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ordschur

Reorder eigenvalues in Schur factorization

Syntax

[US,TS] = ordschur(U,T,select)
[US,TS] = ordschur(U,T,keyword)
[US,TS] = ordschur(U,T,clusters)

Description

[US,TS] = ordschur(U,T,select) reorders the Schur factorization X = U*T*U' produced by [U,T] = schur(X) and returns the reordered Schur matrix TS and the orthogonal matrix US, such that X = US*TS*US'.

In this reordering, the selected cluster of eigenvalues appears in the leading (upper left) diagonal blocks of the quasitriangular Schur matrix TS. The leading columns of US span the corresponding invariant subspace. The logical vector select specifies the selected cluster as e(select), where e = ordeig(T).

[US,TS] = ordschur(U,T,keyword) sets the selected cluster to include all eigenvalues in the region specified by keyword.

example

[US,TS] = ordschur(U,T,clusters) reorders multiple clusters simultaneously. ordschur sorts the specified clusters in descending order along the diagonal of TS, with the cluster of highest index appearing in the upper left corner.

Examples

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Compute the Schur factors of a matrix, then reorder the factors according to a specified ordering of the eigenvalues.

Find the Schur factorization of a matrix X. The Schur factorization produces an upper quasitriangular matrix T and a unitary matrix U such that .

X = magic(6);
[U,T] = schur(X)
U = 

    0.4082   -0.2887    0.4082    0.5749    0.5000   -0.0530
    0.4082    0.5774    0.4082   -0.3333   -0.0000   -0.4714
    0.4082   -0.2887    0.4082   -0.2416   -0.5000    0.5244
    0.4082    0.2887   -0.4082    0.5749   -0.5000   -0.0530
    0.4082   -0.5774   -0.4082   -0.3333   -0.0000   -0.4714
    0.4082    0.2887   -0.4082   -0.2416    0.5000    0.5244

T = 

  111.0000    0.0000   -0.0000   -0.0000   -0.0000   -0.0000
         0   27.0000    0.0000  -28.3164  -15.5885  -13.0454
         0         0  -27.0000   18.0000   22.0454  -12.7279
         0         0         0    9.7980    0.0000    6.9282
         0         0         0         0   -0.0000   -0.0000
         0         0         0         0         0   -9.7980

Since T is triangular, the diagonal of T contains the eigenvalues of the original matrix X.

Reorder the Schur factorization so that the eigenvalues are in two clusters, with the cluster of negative eigenvalues appearing first along the diagonal of TS.

[US,TS] = ordschur(U,T,'lhp')
US = 

    0.4082   -0.2887    0.2746    0.4082   -0.4826    0.5244
    0.4082   -0.2887    0.2990    0.4082    0.5213   -0.4714
    0.4082    0.5774   -0.5736    0.4082   -0.0386   -0.0530
   -0.4082    0.2887    0.2075    0.4082    0.5151    0.5244
   -0.4082    0.2887    0.3662    0.4082   -0.4765   -0.4714
   -0.4082   -0.5774   -0.5736    0.4082   -0.0386   -0.0530

TS = 

  -27.0000  -19.0919   18.6997    0.0000   -9.7888   12.7279
         0   -0.0000   -0.3800   -0.0000  -15.6493   15.5227
         0         0   -9.7980   -0.0000   -2.4773    8.7185
         0         0         0  111.0000    0.0000   -0.0000
         0         0         0         0   27.0000  -26.3600
         0         0         0         0         0    9.7980

Input Arguments

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Unitary matrix, specified as the matrix U returned by [U,T] = schur(X). The matrix U satisfies the properties X = U*T*U' and U'*U = eye(size(X)).

If U and T do not form a valid Schur decomposition, then ordschur does not produce an error and returns incorrect results.

Data Types: single | double
Complex Number Support: Yes

Schur matrix, specified as the upper quasitriangular matrix T returned by [U,T] = schur(X). The matrix T satisfies X = U*T*U'.

If U and T do not form a valid Schur decomposition, then ordschur does not produce an erorr and returns incorrect results.

Data Types: single | double
Complex Number Support: Yes

Cluster selector, specified as a logical vector with length equal to the number of eigenvalues. The eigenvalues appear along the diagonal of the matrix T produced by [U,T] = schur(X).

Data Types: logical

Eigenvalue region keyword, specified as one of the options in this table.

Option

Selected Region

(e = ordeig(T))

'lhp'

Left-half plane (real(e) < 0)

'rhp'

Right-half plane (real(e) >= 0)

'udi'

Interior of unit disk (abs(e) < 1)

'udo'

Exterior of unit disk (abs(e) >= 1)

Cluster indices, specified as a vector of positive integers with length equal to the number of eigenvalues. clusters assigns each eigenvalue returned by e = ordeig(T) to a different cluster. All eigenvalues with the same index value in clusters form one cluster.

Example: ordschur(U,T,[1 1 2 3 3]) groups five eigenvalues into three clusters.

Data Types: single | double

Output Arguments

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Reordered matrices, returned as matrices that satisfy X = US*TS*US'.

US is a unitary matrix, and TS is quasitriangular.

More About

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Quasitriangular

An upper quasitriangular matrix can result from the Schur decomposition or generalized Schur (QZ) decomposition of real matrices. These matrices are block upper triangular, with 1-by-1 and 2-by-2 blocks along the diagonal.

The eigenvalues of these diagonal blocks are also the eigenvalues of the matrix. The 1-by-1 blocks correspond to real eigenvalues, and the 2-by-2 blocks correspond to complex conjugate eigenvalue pairs.

Tips

  • If T has complex conjugate pairs (nonzero elements on the subdiagonal), then you should move the pair to the same cluster. Otherwise, ordschur acts to keep the pair together:

    • If select is not the same for two eigenvalues in a conjugate pair, then ordschur treats both as selected.

    • If clusters is not the same for two eigenvalues in a conjugate pair, then ordschur treats both as part of the cluster with larger index.

See Also

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Introduced before R2006a

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