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## f Coefficient for Systems

 Note:   THIS PAGE DESCRIBES THE LEGACY WORKFLOW. New features might not be compatible with the legacy workflow. For the corresponding step in the recommended workflow, see f Coefficient for `specifyCoefficients`.

This section describes how to write the coefficient `f` in the equation

`$-\nabla \cdot \left(c\otimes \nabla u\right)+au=f$`

or in similar equations. The number of rows in `f` indicates N, the number of equations, see Equations You Can Solve Using Legacy Functions. Give `f` as any of the following:

• A column vector with N components. For example, if N = 3, `f` could be:

`f = [3;4;10];`
• A character array with N rows. The rows of the character array are MATLAB® expressions as described in Specify Scalar PDE Coefficients in Character Form, with additional options for nonlinear equations. The additional options are:

• Represent the `i`th component of the solution `u` using `'u(i)'`.

• Similarly, represent the `i`th components of the gradients of the solution `u` using `'ux(i)'`, `'uy(i)'` and `'uz(i)'`.

Pad the rows with spaces so each row has the same number of characters (`char` does this automatically). For example, if N = 3, `f` could be:

`f = char('sin(x)+cos(y)','cosh(x.*y)*(1+u(1).^2)','x.*y./(1+x.^2+y.^2)')`
```f = sin(x) + cos(y) cosh(x.*y)*(1 + u(1).^2) x.*y./(1 + x.^2 + y.^2) ```
• For 2-D geometry, a function as described in Specify 2-D Scalar Coefficients in Function Form. The function should return a matrix of size N-by-Nt, where Nt is the number of triangles in the mesh. The function should evaluate `f` at the triangle centroids, as in Specify 2-D Scalar Coefficients in Function Form. Give solvers the function name as `'filename'`, or as a function handle @`filename`, where `filename.m` is a file on your MATLAB path. For details on writing the function, see Calculate Coefficients in Function Form.

For example, if N = 3, `f` could be:

```function f = fcoeffunction(p,t,u,time) N = 3; % Number of equations % Triangle point indices it1 = t(1,:); it2 = t(2,:); it3 = t(3,:); % Find centroids of triangles xpts = (p(1,it1) + p(1,it2) + p(1,it3))/3; ypts = (p(2,it1) + p(2,it2) + p(2,it3))/3; [ux,uy] = pdegrad(p,t,u); % Approximate derivatives uintrp = pdeintrp(p,t,u); % Interpolated values at centroids nt = size(t,2); % Number of columns f = zeros(N,nt); % Allocate f % Now the particular functional form of f f(1,:) = xpts - ypts + uintrp(1,:); f(2,:) = 1 + tanh(ux(1,:)) + tanh(uy(3,:)); f(3,:) = (5 + uintrp(3,:)).*sqrt(xpts.^2 + ypts.^2);```

Because this function depends on the solution u, if the equation is elliptic, use the `pdenonlin` solver. The initial value can be all `0`s in the case of Dirichlet boundary conditions:

```np = size(p,2); % number of points u0 = zeros(N*np,1); % initial guess```
• For 3-D geometry, a function as described in Specify 3-D PDE Coefficients in Function Form. The function should return a matrix of size N-by-Nr, where Nr is the number of points in the region that the solver passes. The function should evaluate `f` at these points. Give solvers the function as a function handle @`filename`, where `filename.m` is a file on your MATLAB path, or is an anonymous function.

 Caution:   It is not reliable to specify `f` as a scalar or a single vector of characters. Sometimes the toolbox can expand the single input to a vector or character array with N identical rows. But you can get an error when the toolbox fails to determine N. Instead of a scalar or a single vector of characters, for reliability specify `f` as a column vector or character array with N rows.