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System object: phased.CosineAntennaElement
Package: phased

Output response of antenna element




    Note:   Starting in R2016b, instead of using the step method to perform the operation defined by the System object™, you can call the object with arguments, as if it were a function. For example, y = step(obj,x) and y = obj(x) perform equivalent operations.

RESP = step(H,FREQ,ANG) returns the antenna's voltage response RESP at operating frequencies specified in FREQ and directions specified in ANG.

    Note:   The object performs an initialization the first time the step method is executed. This initialization locks nontunable properties and input specifications, such as dimensions, complexity, and data type of the input data. If you change a nontunable property or an input specification, the System object issues an error. To change nontunable properties or inputs, you must first call the release method to unlock the object.

Input Arguments


Antenna element object.


Operating frequencies of antenna in hertz. FREQ is a row vector of length L.


Directions in degrees. ANG can be either a 2-by-M matrix or a row vector of length M.

If ANG is a 2-by-M matrix, each column of the matrix specifies the direction in the form [azimuth; elevation]. The azimuth angle must be between –180 and 180 degrees, inclusive. The elevation angle must be between –90 and 90 degrees, inclusive.

If ANG is a row vector of length M, each element specifies a direction's azimuth angle. In this case, the corresponding elevation angle is assumed to be 0.

Output Arguments


Voltage response of antenna element specified as an M-by-L, complex-valued matrix. In this matrix, M represents the number of angles specified in ANG while L represents the number of frequencies specified in FREQ.


Cosine Response

The step method returns the field response (or field pattern)


of the cosine antenna element.

In this expression

  • az is the azimuth angle.

  • el is the elevation angle.

  • The exponents m and n are real numbers greater than zero.

The response is defined for azimuth and elevation angles between –90° and 90°, inclusive, and is always positive. There is no response at the backside of a cosine antenna. The cosine response pattern achieves a maximum value of 1 at 0° azimuth and 0° elevation. Larger exponent values narrow the response pattern of the element and increase the directivity.

The power response (or power pattern) is the squared value of the field response.



Construct a cosine antenna element. The cosine response is raised to a power of 1.5. The antenna frequency range is the IEEE® X band from 8 to 12 GHz. The antenna operates at 10 GHz. Obtain the antenna's response for an incident angle of 30 degrees azimuth and 5 degrees elevation.

hant = phased.CosineAntennaElement(...
    'FrequencyRange',[8e9 12e9],...
% operating frequency
fc = 10e9;
% incident angle
ang = [30;5];
% use the step method to obtain the antenna's response
resp = step(hant,fc,ang);
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