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phased.ScatteringMIMOChannel System object

Scattering MIMO channel

Description

The phased.ScatteringMIMOChannel System object™ models a multipath propagation channel in which radiated signals from a transmitting array are reflected from multiple scatterers back toward a receiving array. In this channel, propagation paths are line of sight from point to point. The object models range-dependent time delay, gain, Doppler shift, phase change, and atmospheric loss due to gases, rain, fog, and clouds.

The attenuation models for atmospheric gases and rain are valid for electromagnetic signals in the frequency range 1–1000 GHz. The attenuation model for fog and clouds is valid from 10–1000 GHz. Outside these frequency ranges, the object uses the nearest valid value.

To compute the multipath propagation for specified source and receiver points:

  1. Define and set up your scattering MIMO channel using the Construction procedure. You can set the System object properties during construction or leave them at their default values.

  2. Call the step method to compute the propagated signals using the properties of the phased.ScatteringMIMOChannel System object. You can change tunable properties before or after any call to the step method.

Note

Instead of using the step method to perform the operation defined by the System object, you can call the object with arguments, as if it were a function. For example, y = step(obj,x) and y = obj(x) perform equivalent operations.

Construction

channel = phased.ScatteringMIMOChannel creates a scattering MIMO propagation channel System object, channel.

channel = phased.ScatteringMIMOChannel(Name,Value) creates a System object, channel, with each specified property Name set to the specified Value. You can specify additional name and value pair arguments in any order as (Name1,Value1,...,NameN,ValueN).

Properties

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Transmitting array, specified as a Phased Array System Toolbox antenna array System object.

Example: phased.URA

Receiving array, specified as a Phased Array System Toolbox antenna array System object.

Example: phased.URA

Signal propagation speed, specified as a real-valued positive scalar. Units are in meters per second. The default propagation speed is the value returned by physconst('LightSpeed').

Example: 3e8

Data Types: double

Signal carrier frequency, specified as a positive real-valued scalar. Units are in Hz.

Example: 100e6

Data Types: double

Option to enable the atmospheric attenuation model, specified as a false or true. Set this property to true to add signal attenuation caused by atmospheric gases, rain, fog, or clouds. Set this property to false to ignore atmospheric effects in propagation.

Setting SpecifyAtmosphere to true, enables the Temperature, DryAirPressure, WaterVapourDensity, LiquidWaterDensity, and RainRate properties.

Data Types: logical

Ambient temperature, specified as a real-valued scalar. Units are in degrees Celsius.

Example: 20.0

Dependencies

To enable this property, set SpecifyAtmosphere to true.

Data Types: double

Atmospheric dry air pressure, specified as a positive real-valued scalar. Units are in pascals (Pa). The default value of this property corresponds to one standard atmosphere.

Example: 101.0e3

Dependencies

To enable this property, set SpecifyAtmosphere to true.

Data Types: double

Atmospheric water vapor density, specified as a positive real-valued scalar. Units are in g/m3.

Example: 7.4

Dependencies

To enable this property, set SpecifyAtmosphere to true.

Data Types: double

Liquid water density of fog or clouds, specified as a nonnegative real-valued scalar. Units are in g/m3. Typical values for liquid water density are 0.05 for medium fog and 0.5 for thick fog.

Example: 0.1

Dependencies

To enable this property, set SpecifyAtmosphere to true.

Data Types: double

Rainfall rate, specified as a nonnegative scalar. Units are in mm/hr.

Example: 10.0

Dependencies

To enable this property, set SpecifyAtmosphere to true.

Data Types: double

Sample rate of signal, specified as a positive scalar. Units are in Hz. The System object uses this quantity to calculate the propagation delay in units of samples.

Example: 1e6

Data Types: double

Option to enable signal propagation along the direct path, specified as false or true. The direct path is a line-of-sight path from the transmitting array to the receiving array with no scattering.

Data Types: logical

Option to enable output of channel response, specified as false or true. Set this property to trueto output the channel response and time delay by using the chmatrix and tau output arguments of the step method.

Data Types: logical

Source of the maximum delay value, specified as 'Auto' or 'Property'. When you set this property to 'Auto', the channel automatically allocates enough memory to simulate the propagation delay. When you set this property to 'Property', you can specify the maximum delay by using the MaximumDelay property. Signals arriving after the maximum delay are ignored.

Maximum signal delay, specified as a positive scalar. Delays greater than this value are ignored. Units are in seconds.

Dependencies

To enable this property, set the MaximumDelaySource property to 'Property'.

Data Types: double

Source of the transmitting array motion parameters, specified as 'Property' or 'Input port'.

  • When you set this property to 'Property', the transmitting array is stationary. Then, you can specify the location and orientation of the array using the TransmitArrayPosition and TransmitArrayOrientationAxes properties.

  • When you set this property to 'Input port', specify the transmitting array location, velocity, and orientation by using the txpos, txvel, and txaxes input arguments of the step method.

Data Types: char

Position of the transmitting array phase center, specified as a real-valued three-element vector in Cartesian form, [x;y;z], with respect to the global coordinate system. Units are in meters.

Example: [1000;-200;55]

Dependencies

To enable this property, set the TransmitArrayMotionSource property to 'Property'.

Data Types: double

Orientation of transmitting array, specified as a real-valued 3-by-3 orthonormal matrix. The matrix specifies the three axes, (x,y,z), that define the local coordinate system of the array with respect to the global coordinate system. Each column corresponds to an axis.

Example: rotz(45)

Dependencies

To enable this property, set the TransmitArrayMotionSource property to 'Property'.

Data Types: double

Source of the receiving array motion parameters, specified as 'Property' or 'Input port'.

  • When you set this property to 'Property', the receiving array is stationary. Then, you can specify the location and orientation of the array by using the ReceiveArrayPosition and ReceiveArrayOrientationAxes properties.

  • When you set this property to 'Input port', you can specify the receiving array location, velocity, and orientation by using the rxpos, rxvel, and rxaxes input arguments of the step method.

Data Types: char

Position of the receiving array phase center, specified as a real-valued three-element vector in Cartesian form,[x;y;z], with respect to the global coordinate system. Units are in meters.

Example: [1000;-200;55]

Dependencies

To enable this property, set the ReceiveArrayMotionSource property to 'Property'.

Data Types: double

Orientation of receiving array, specified as a real-valued 3-by-3 orthonormal matrix. The matrix specifies the three axes, (x,y,z), that define the local coordinate system of the array with respect to the global coordinate system. Each column corresponds to an axis.

Example: roty(60)

Dependencies

To enable this property, set the ReceiveArrayMotionSource property to 'Property'.

Data Types: double

Source of scatterer parameters, specified as 'Auto', 'Property', 'Input port'.

  • When you set this property to 'Auto', all scatterer positions and coefficients are randomly generated. Scatterer velocities are zero. The generated positions are contained within the region that is defined by the ScattererPositionBoundary. To set the number of scatterers, use the NumScatterers property.

  • When you set this property to 'Property', you can set the scatterer positions by using the ScattererPosition property and the scattering coefficients by using the ScattererCoefficient property. All scatterer velocities are zero.

  • When you set this property to 'Input port', you can specify the scatterer positions, velocities, and scattering coefficients using the scatpos, scatvel, and scatcoef input arguments of the step method.

Example: 'Input port'

Data Types: char

Number of scatterers, specified as a nonnegative integer.

Example: 9

Dependencies

To enable this property, set the ScattererSpecificationSource property to 'Auto'.

Data Types: double

Boundary of the scatterer positions, specified as a 1-by-2 real-valued row vector or a 3-by-2 real-valued matrix. The vector specifies the minimum and maximum, [minbdry maxbdry], for all three dimensions. The matrix specifies boundaries in all three dimensions in the form [x_minbdry x_maxbdry;y_minbdry y_maxbdry; z_minbdry z_maxbdry].

Example: [-1000 500;-100 100;-200 0]

Dependencies

To enable this property, set the ScattererSpecificationSource property to 'Auto'.

Data Types: double

Positions of the scatterers, specified as real-valued 3-by-K matrix. K is the number of scatterers. Each column represents a different scatterer and has the Cartesian form [x;y;z] with respect to the global coordinate system. Units are in meters.

Example: [1050 -100;-300 55;0 -75]

Dependencies

To enable this property, set the ScattererSpecificationSource property to 'Property'.

Data Types: double

Scattering coefficients, specified as a complex-valued 1-by-K vector. K is the number of scatterers. Units are dimensionless.

Example: 2+1i

Dependencies

To enable this property, set the ScattererSpecificationSource property to 'Property'.

Data Types: double
Complex Number Support: Yes

Source of random number generator seed, specified as 'Auto' or 'Property'.

  • When you set this property to 'Auto', random numbers are generated using the default MATLAB® random number generator.

  • When you set this property to 'Property', the object uses a private random number generator with the seed specified by the value of the Seed property.

To use this object with Parallel Computing Toolbox™ software, set this property to 'Auto'.

Dependencies

To enable this property, set the ScattererSpecificationSource property to 'Auto'.

Random number generator seed, specified as a nonnegative integer less than 232.

Example: 5005

Dependencies

To enable this property, set the ScattererSpecificationSource property to 'Auto' and the SeedSource property to 'Property'.

Data Types: double

Methods

resetReset state of the System object
stepPropagate signals in scattering MIMO channel
Common to All System Objects
clone

Create System object with same property values

getNumInputs

Expected number of inputs to a System object

getNumOutputs

Expected number of outputs of a System object

isLocked

Check locked states of a System object (logical)

release

Allow System object property value changes

Examples

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Create a 30 GHz MIMO channel with random scatterers. The scenario contains a stationary 21-element transmitting ULA array and a stationary 15-element receiving ULA array. The transmitting antennas have cosine responses and the receiving antennas are isotropic. Element spacing for both arrays is less than one-half wavelength. The channel has 50 randomly generated static scatterers within a specified bounding box. The transmit array is located at [0;20;50] meters and the receive array is located at [200;10;10] meters. Compute the propagated signal through this channel. The sample rate for the signal is 10 MHz.

fc = 30e9;
c = physconst('LightSpeed');
lambda = c/fc;
fs = 10e6;
txarray = phased.ULA('Element',phased.CosineAntennaElement,...
    'NumElements',21,'ElementSpacing',0.45*lambda);
rxarray = phased.ULA('Element',phased.IsotropicAntennaElement,...
    'NumElements',15,'ElementSpacing',0.45*lambda);

channel = phased.ScatteringMIMOChannel('TransmitArray',txarray,...
    'ReceiveArray',rxarray,'PropagationSpeed',c,'CarrierFrequency',fc,...
    'SampleRate',fs,'TransmitArrayPosition',[0;20;50],...
    'ReceiveArrayPosition',[200;10;10],'NumScatterers',50,...
    'ScattererPositionBoundary',[10 180; -30 30; -30 30]);

Create a random data signal of ones and zeros for each transmitter.

x = randi(2,[100 21]) - 1;

Compute the received signals after propagating through the channel.

y = channel(x);

Create a MIMO channel containing 3 fixed scatterers. The scenario contains a 21-element transmitting ULA array operating at 72 GHz, and a 15-element receiving ULA array. The transmitting elements have cosine response shapes and the receiving antennas are isotropic. Only the transmitting antenna is moving. Element spacing for both arrays is less than one-half wavelength. The transmitting array starts at (0,20,50) meters and moves towards the receiver at 2 m/s. The receiving array is located at (200,10,10) meters. Compute the propagated signal through this channel. The sample rate for the signal is 10 MHz.

fc = 72e9;
c = physconst('LightSpeed');
lambda = c/fc;
fs = 10e6;
txplatform = phased.Platform('MotionModel','Velocity','InitialPosition', ...
    [0;20;50],'Velocity',[2;0;0]);
txarray = phased.ULA('Element',phased.CosineAntennaElement, ...
    'NumElements',21,'ElementSpacing',0.45*lambda);
rxarray = phased.ULA('Element',phased.IsotropicAntennaElement, ...
    'NumElements',15,'ElementSpacing',0.45*lambda);
channel = phased.ScatteringMIMOChannel('TransmitArray',txarray, ...
    'ReceiveArray',rxarray,'PropagationSpeed',c,'CarrierFrequency',fc,...
    'SampleRate',fs,'TransmitArrayMotionSource','Input port', ...
    'ReceiveArrayMotionSource','Property','ReceiveArrayPosition',[200;10;10],...
    'ReceiveArrayOrientationAxes',rotz(180),...
    'ScattererSpecificationSource','Property','ScattererPosition', ...
    [75 100 120; -10 20 12; 5 -5 8],'ScattererCoefficient',[1i,2+3i,-1+1i]);

Move the platforms for two time steps at one second intervals. For each time instance:

  • Create a random data signal of ones and zeros for each transmitter element.

  • Move the transmitter and receiver. The orientations are fixed.

  • Propagate the signals from transmitters to scatterers to receiver.

for k =1:2
    x = randi(2,[100 21]) - 1;
    [txpos,txvel] = txplatform(1);
    txaxes = eye(3);
    y = channel(x,txpos,txvel,txaxes);
end

Create a MIMO channel containing 3 fixed scatterers. The scenario contains a 21-element transmitting ULA array and a 15-element receiving ULA array. Both arrays operating at 72 GHz. The transmitting elements have cosine response shapes and the receiving antennas are isotropic. Only the receiving antenna is moving. Element spacing for both arrays is less than one-half wavelength. The transmitting array is located at (0,20,50) meters. The receiving array starts at (200,10,10) meters and moves toward the transmitter at 2 m/s. Compute the propagated signal through this channel. The sample rate for the signal is 10 MHz.

fc = 72e9;
c = physconst('LightSpeed');
lambda = c/fc;
fs = 10e6;
rxplatform = phased.Platform('MotionModel','Velocity','InitialPosition',...
    [200;10;10],'Velocity',[-2;0;0]);
txarray = phased.ULA('Element',phased.CosineAntennaElement, ...
    'NumElements',21,'ElementSpacing',0.45*lambda);
rxarray = phased.ULA('Element',phased.IsotropicAntennaElement, ...
    'NumElements',15,'ElementSpacing',0.45*lambda);
channel = phased.ScatteringMIMOChannel('TransmitArray',txarray, ...
    'ReceiveArray',rxarray,'PropagationSpeed',c,'CarrierFrequency',fc, ...
    'SampleRate',fs,'TransmitArrayMotionSource','Property',...
    'TransmitArrayPosition',[0;20;50],'TransmitArrayOrientationAxes',eye(3,3), ...
    'ReceiveArrayMotionSource','Input port','ScattererSpecificationSource', ...
    'Property','ScattererPosition',[75 100 120; -10 20 12; 5 -5 8], ...
    'ScattererCoefficient',[1i,2+3i,-1+1i],'SpecifyAtmosphere',false);

Move the platforms for two time steps at one-second intervals. For each time instance:

  • Create a random data signal of ones and zeros for each transmitter element.

  • Move the transmitter and receiver. Fix the array orientations.

  • Propagate the signals from transmitters to scatterers to receiver.

for k =1:2
    x = randi(2,[100 21]) - 1;
    [rxpos,rxvel] = rxplatform(1);
    rxaxes = rotz(45);
    y = channel(x,rxpos,rxvel,rxaxes);
end

Definitions

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References

[1] Heath, R. Jr. et al. “An Overview of Signal Processing Techniques for Millimeter Wave MIMO Systems”, arXiv.org:1512.03007 [cs.IT], 2015.

[2] Tse, D. and P. Viswanath, Fundamentals of Wireless Communications, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

[3] Paulraj, A. Introduction to Space-Time Wireless Communications, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

[4] Radiocommunication Sector of the International Telecommunication Union. Recommendation ITU-R P.676-10: Attenuation by atmospheric gases. 2013.

[5] Radiocommunication Sector of the International Telecommunication Union. Recommendation ITU-R P.840-6: Attenuation due to clouds and fog. 2013.

[6] Radiocommunication Sector of the International Telecommunication Union. Recommendation ITU-R P.838-3: Specific attenuation model for rain for use in prediction methods. 2005.

[7] Seybold, J. Introduction to RF Propagation. New York: Wiley & Sons, 2005.

[8] Skolnik, M. Introduction to Radar Systems, 3rd Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001.

Extended Capabilities

Introduced in R2017a

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