This example shows a simple voltage regulator circuit constructed from discrete components. A fluctuating supply is modeled as 20V DC plus a 1V sinusoidal variation. The zener diode D1 sets the non-inverting input of the op-amp to 3.2V, and hence as the op-amp has a large gain, the op-amp inverting input and output are also at 3.2V. Hence the regulator voltage output is regulated to be 3.2*(1000+470)/470=10V. The NPN bipolar transistor is required to provide higher currents than is possible from a typical op-amp. The model can be used to check circuit operation, and to support selection of components to achieve the desired voltage regulation.