Hydraulic variable orifice shaped as rectangular slot
The block models a variable orifice created by a cylindrical sharp-edged spool and a rectangular slot in a sleeve. The flow rate through the orifice is proportional to the orifice opening and to the pressure differential across the orifice. The flow rate is determined according to the following equations:
|pA, pB||Gauge pressures at the block terminals|
|CD||Flow discharge coefficient|
|A(h)||Instantaneous orifice passage area|
|b||Width of the orifice slot|
|x||Spool displacement from initial position|
|or||Orifice orientation indicator. The variable assumes +1 value if a spool displacement in the globally assigned positive direction opens the orifice, and –1 if positive motion decreases the opening.|
|ν||Fluid kinematic viscosity|
|pcr||Minimum pressure for turbulent flow|
|Recr||Critical Reynolds number|
|DH||Instantaneous orifice hydraulic diameter|
|Aleak||Closed orifice leakage area|
The block positive direction is from port A to port B. This means that the flow rate is positive if it flows from A to B and the pressure differential is determined as . Positive signal at the physical signal port S opens or closes the orifice depending on the value of the parameter Orifice orientation.
The width of the rectangular slot. The default value is 1e-2 m.
Semi-empirical parameter for orifice capacity characterization. Its value depends on the geometrical properties of the orifice, and usually is provided in textbooks or manufacturer data sheets. The default value is 0.7.
Orifice initial opening. The parameter can be positive (underlapped orifice), negative (overlapped orifice), or equal to zero for zero lap configuration. The value of initial opening does not depend on the orifice orientation. The default value is 0.
The parameter is introduced to specify the effect of the orifice control member motion on the valve opening. The parameter can be set to one of two options: Opens in positive direction or Opens in negative direction. The value Opens in positive direction specifies an orifice whose control member opens the valve when it is shifted in the globally assigned positive direction. The parameter is extremely useful for building a multi-orifice valve with all the orifices being controlled by the same spool. The default value is Opens in positive direction.
The maximum Reynolds number for laminar flow. The transition from laminar to turbulent regime is assumed to take place when the Reynolds number reaches this value. The value of the parameter depends on the orifice geometrical profile. You can find recommendations on the parameter value in hydraulics textbooks. The default value is 12.
The total area of possible leaks in the completely closed valve. The main purpose of the parameter is to maintain numerical integrity of the circuit by preventing a portion of the system from getting isolated after the valve is completely closed. An isolated or "hanging" part of the system could affect computational efficiency and even cause simulation to fail. Therefore, MathWorks recommends that you do not set this parameter to 0. The default value is 1e-12 m^2.
Parameters determined by the type of working fluid:
Fluid kinematic viscosity
The block has the following ports:
Hydraulic conserving port associated with the orifice inlet.
Hydraulic conserving port associated with the orifice outlet.
Physical signal port to control spool displacement.
The flow rate is positive if fluid flows from port A to port B. Positive signal at the physical signal port S opens or closes the orifice depending on the value of the parameter Orifice orientation.