Documentation

Tank

Pressurized fluid container with variable fluid level

  • Library:
  • Hydraulics (Isothermal) / Low-Pressure Blocks

Description

The Tank block models a pressurized fluid container with a variable fluid level. The tank has an optional number of ports ranging from one to three, with each number corresponding to a block variant. The tank pressurization is fixed regardless of changes to fluid volume or fluid level. The tank is vented if the pressurization is set to zero—a setting corresponding to an internal pressure equal to atmospheric pressure.

Tank Ports and Port Elevations

The block accounts for differences in port elevation. Hydrostatic pressure is computed separately for each port from the fluid level and port elevation. The hydrostatic pressure adds to the pressurization of the tank—increasing the port pressure as the fluid level rises. The block accounts also for minor pressure losses at the ports due to filters, fittings, and other local flow resistances. To modulate these losses, the block provides a pressure loss coefficient for each port.

Changing the Number of Ports

To change the number of ports in the tank, you must change the active block variant. You can do this from the context-sensitive menu of the block. Right-click the block to open the menu and select Simscape > Block choices to view or change the active block variant. Variant options include:

  • One inlet (default) — Exposes one hydraulic conserving port, T.

  • Two inlets — Exposes hydraulic conserving ports A and B.

  • Three inlets — Exposes hydraulic conserving ports A, B, and C.

Port A in the Two inlets and Three inlets variants is a direct replacement of port T in the One inlet variant.

Port Depth and Fluid Level

Port T in the One inlet variant—or port A, its replacement in the Two inlets and Three inlets variants—is by default located at the bottom of the tank. The depth of this port relative to the top of the fluid volume is equal to the fluid level—the height of the fluid volume:

yT/A=H,

where:

  • yT/A is the depth of port T or A.

  • H is the fluid level in the tank.

Ports B and C in the Two inlets and Three inlets variants are assumed to be located above port A. The depths of these ports are each computed as the difference between the fluid level and the port elevation above port A:

yB=HHAB,

and

yC=HHAC,

where:

  • yB and yC are the depths of ports B, and C.

  • HAB and HAC are the elevations of ports B and C above port A.

The fluid level, H, is computed during simulation from the instantaneous fluid volume. This calculation depends on the Tank volume parameterization setting. If the parameterization is set to Constant cross-sectional area (the default setting), the fluid level is:

H=VS,

where:

  • V is the instantaneous fluid volume in the tank.

  • S is the internal cross-sectional area of the tank, specified in the Tank cross-section area parameter.

If the Tank volume parameterization is set to Tabulated data — Volume vs. level, the fluid level is computed by interpolation or extrapolation of tabulated fluid level data specified as a function of fluid volume:

H=f(V)

The instantaneous fluid volume varies with the volumetric flow rates through the exposed ports. This volume increases if the sum of all flow rates is positive. A flow rate is positive if it is directed from the port to the interior of the tank, that is, if fluid enters the tank. The time rate of change of the fluid volume is defined as:

dVdt=iqi,

where qi is the flow rate into the tank through the port denoted by iT/A, B, or C.

Flow Rate and Pressure Drop

The volumetric flow rate through a port is a function of the pressure drop from that port to the interior of the tank. The flow rate is positive if the pressure drop is positive—that is, if pressure is higher at the port than in the tank—and negative otherwise:

qi=Ai2KiρΔpi(Δpi2+pCr,i2)1/4,

where:

  • Ai is the internal cross-sectional area of the port denoted by i (T/A, B, or C):

    Ai=πdi24,

    with di as the internal diameter of the port.

  • Ki is the pressure loss coefficient specified for the port.

  • ρ is the hydraulic fluid density.

  • Δpi is the pressure drop from the port to the interior of the tank.

  • pCr,i is the critical pressure at which the flow through the port switches between laminar and turbulent.

The critical pressure at a port is computed from the critical Reynolds number, internally set to a value of 15, and from the respective port diameter. The critical pressure is modulated by the pressure loss coefficient specified for the port—with this parameter serving as a gain for the critical pressure:

pCr,i=Kiρ2(ReCrνdi),

where:

  • ReCr is the critical Reynolds number.

  • ν (nu) is the hydraulic fluid dynamic viscosity.

  • di is the internal diameter of the port denoted by i.

The pressure drop from a port to the interior of the tank is computed from the specified Pressurization value, the hydrostatic pressure, and the pressure at the port:

Δpi=pport,i(ppress+pelev,i),

where:

  • pport,i is the pressure at the port denoted by i.

  • ppress is the specified tank Pressurization value.

  • pelev,i is the hydrostatic pressure at the port.

The hydrostatic pressure at a port is a function of the port elevation above the bottom of the tank (zero for port T/A):

pelev,i=ρgyi,

where

  • g is the value of the gravitational acceleration at the mean elevation of the system.

  • yi is the elevation of the port denoted by i relative to the bottom of the port.

C/C++ Code Generation

This block supports code generation for real-time simulation tasks. Certain blocks and block settings may be more suitable for simulation on a real-time device. For suggestions on how to improve real-time simulation performance, use the Simulink® Performance Advisor (Simulink). Suggestions include ways to reduce model complexity and decrease numerical stiffness.

Select Analysis > Performance Tools > Performance Advisor in the Simulink menu bar to open the Performance Advisor. Set the Activity parameter to Execute real-time application to view suggestions specific to real-time simulation performance. Expand the Real-Time node in the tree view pane to select performance checks specific to Simscape™ products.

Ports

Output

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Physical signal output port reporting the volume of fluid in the tank.

Conserving

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Hydraulic (isothermal liquid) conserving port representing the tank inlet.

Dependencies

This port is active when the block variant is in the default setting of One inlet. You can change block variants from the block context-sensitive menu. Right-click the block to open the menu and select Simscape > Block choices.

Hydraulic (isothermal liquid) conserving port representing one of multiple tank inlets.

Dependencies

This port is active when the block variant is set to Two inlets or Three inlets. You can change block variants from the block context-sensitive menu. Right-click the block to open the menu and select Simscape > Block choices.

Hydraulic (isothermal liquid) conserving port representing one of multiple tank inlets.

Dependencies

This port is active when the block variant is set to Two inlets or Three inlets. You can change block variants from the block context-sensitive menu. Right-click the block to open the menu and select Simscape > Block choices.

Hydraulic (isothermal liquid) conserving port representing one of multiple tank inlets.

Dependencies

This port is active when the block variant is set to Three inlets. You can change block variants from the block context-sensitive menu. Right-click the block to open the menu and select Simscape > Block choices.

Parameters

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Parameters Tab

Gauge pressure of the tank volume. The tank pressure is held constant at this value during simulation. The default value, 0 Pa, corresponds to a vented tank—one whose internal pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure of the system.

Choice of parameterization for the tank volume. Select Constant cross-sectional area to compute the tank volume from the variable fluid level and a constant cross-sectional area. Select Tabulated data — volume vs. level to compute the tank volume by interpolation or extrapolation of tabulated data on the fluid volume at discrete fluid levels.

Area of the tank cross-section, assumed constant over the allowed range of fluid levels. The block uses this parameter to compute the volume of fluid inside the tank.

Array of fluid volumes for the 1-D lookup table used to compute the tank fluid level. The array must increase from left to right but the intervals between the array element values need not be uniform. There must be at least two elements for Linear interpolation and three elements for Smooth interpolation.

Dependencies

This parameter is active when the Tank volume parameterization parameter is set to Tabulated data — volume vs. level.

Array of fluid levels corresponding to the specified orifice openings. The number of elements in the array must match the number of elements in the Opening vector parameter.

Dependencies

This parameter is active when the Tank volume parameterization parameter is set to Tabulated data — volume vs. level.

Method of computing values inside the tabulated data range. The Linear method joins adjacent data points with straight line or surface segments with generally discontinuous slope at the segment boundaries. Surface segments are used in the 2-D lookup table specified in the Pressure-flow characteristic model parameterization.

The Smooth method replaces the straight segments with curved versions that have continuous slope everywhere inside the tabulated data range. The segments form a smooth line or surface passing through all of the tabulated data points without the discontinuities in first-order derivatives characteristic of the Linear interpolation method.

Dependencies

This parameter is active when the Tank volume parameterization parameter is set to Tabulated data — Volume vs. level.

Method of computing values outside of the tabulated data range. The Linear method extends the line segment drawn between the last two data points at each end of the data range outward with a constant slope.

The Nearest method extends the last data point at each end of the data range outward as a horizontal line with constant value.

Dependencies

This parameter is active when the Tank volume parameterization parameter is set to Tabulated data — Volume vs. level.

Diameter of the tank inlet. The tank has a single port when this parameter is exposed.

Dependencies

This parameter is active when the block variant is set to One inlet.

Diameter of tank port A/B/C.

Dependencies

This parameter is active when the block variant is set to Two inlets or Three inlets.

Empirical coefficient used to account for pressure losses at the tank inlet. This parameter must be greater than zero. The block has a single port when this parameter is exposed.

Dependencies

This parameter is active when the block variant is set to One inlet.

Empirical coefficient used to account for pressure losses at port A/B/C. This parameter must be greater than zero.

Dependencies

This parameter is active when the block variant is set to Two inlets or Three inlets.

Elevation of port B/C above port A. The block uses this parameter to account for differences in port elevation.

Dependencies

This parameter is active when the block variant is set to Two inlets or Three inlets.

Gravitational acceleration constant at the mean elevation of the hydraulic system. Changes in gravitational acceleration are assumed negligible over the height of the system.

Lowest fluid level allowed during simulation. The block triggers a simulation warning if the fluid level falls below the specified value.

Simulation warning mode for invalid fluid levels in the tank. Select Warning to be notified when the fluid level falls below a minimum specified value.

Variables Tab

Volume of fluid in the tank at time zero. Simscape software uses this parameter to guide the initial configuration of the component and model. Initial variables that conflict with each other or are incompatible with the model may be ignored. Set the Priority column to High to prioritize this variable over other, low-priority, variables.

Height of the fluid volume in the tank at time zero. Simscape software uses this parameter to guide the initial configuration of the component and model. Initial variables that conflict with each other or are incompatible with the model may be ignored. Set the Priority column to High to prioritize this variable over other, low-priority, variables.

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