# Rack & Pinion

Rack and pinion gear coupling translational and rotational motion, with adjustable pinion radius and friction losses

## Library

Simscape / Driveline / Gears / Rotational-Translational

## Description

The Rack & Pinion block represents rack and pinion gear that converts between translational and rotational motion. The rotational-translational gear constrains the pinion (P) and rack (R) to, respectively, rotate and translate together in a fixed ratio that you specify. You can choose whether the rack axis translates in a positive or negative direction, as the pinion rotates in a positive direction, by using the Rack direction parameter.

### Thermal Modeling

You can model the effects of heat flow and temperature change through an optional thermal conserving port. By default, the thermal port is hidden. To expose the thermal port, right-click the block in your model and, from the context menu, select Simscape > Block choices. Select a variant that includes a thermal port. Specify the associated thermal parameters for the component.

## Gear Model

### Model Variables

 RRP Rack-pinion gear ratio ωP Angular velocity of the pinion shaft vR Translational velocity of the rack rP Effective radius of the pinion NP Number of teeth on the pinion xR Rack tooth spacing τP Pinion shaft torque FR Rack force Floss Total loss force FCoul Friction force η Torque transfer efficiency pth Power threshold μP Viscous friction coefficient for the pinion shaft μR Viscous friction coefficient for the rack motion

### Ideal Gear Constraint and Gear Ratio

Rack & Pinion imposes one kinematic constraint on the two connected axes:

ωP = RRPvR .

The transmission ratio is:

RRP = 1 / rP = ωP / vN = ± 2π / NPvR .

The two degrees of freedom are reduced to one independent degree of freedom. The forward-transfer gear pair convention is (1,2) = (P,R).

The torque-force transfer is:

RRPτP + FRFloss = 0 ,

with Floss = 0 in the ideal case.

### Nonideal Gear Constraint

In the nonideal case, Floss ≠ 0. For general considerations on nonideal gear modeling, see Model Gears with Losses.

In a nonideal pinion-rack pair (P,R), the angular velocity and geometric constraints are unchanged. But the transferred torque, force, and power are reduced by:

• Coulomb friction between teeth surfaces on P and R, characterized by constant efficiency η

• Viscous coupling of driveshafts with bearings, parametrized by viscous friction coefficients μ

### Meshing Efficiency

The efficiency η of meshing between pinion and rack is fully active only if the transmitted power is greater than the power threshold.

If the power is less than the threshold, the actual efficiency is automatically regularized to unity at zero velocity.

Efficiency is assumed equal for both the forward and reverse power flow.

### Viscous Friction Force

The viscous friction coefficients μP and μR control the viscous friction torque and force experienced by the rack and pinion from lubricated, nonideal bearings. The viscous friction torque on the pinion axis is –μPωP. The viscous friction force on the rack motion is –μRvR.

## Limitations

• Gear inertia is assumed negligible.

• Gears are treated as rigid components.

• Coulomb friction slows down simulation. See Adjust Model Fidelity.

## Ports

PortDescription
PRotational conserving port representing the pinion
RTranslational conserving port representing the rack
HThermal conserving port for modeling heat transfer

P is a rotational conserving port. R is a translational conserving port. They represent the pinion and the rack, respectively.

## Parameters

### Main

Parameterize by

Select how to parameterize the rack and pinion gear. The default is `Pinion radius`.

• `Pinion radius` — Gear ratio is defined by the effective radius of the pinion.

Effective radius of the pinion rP. Must be greater than zero. The default is `100`.

From the drop-down list, choose units. The default is millimeters (`mm`).

• `Tooth parameters` — Gear ratio is defined by the number of teeth on the pinion gear and the rack tooth spacing. If you select this option, the panel changes from its default.

Rack direction

Choose whether the rack axis translates in a positive or negative direction when the pinion rotates in a positive direction. The default is `Positive for positive pinion rotation`.

### Meshing Losses

Parameters for meshing and friction losses vary with the block variant chosen—one with a thermal port for thermal modeling and one without it.

### Viscous Losses

Pinion rotational viscous friction coefficient

Viscous friction coefficient μP for the pinion shaft. The default is `0`.

From the drop-down list, choose units. The default is newton-meters/(radians/second) (`N*m/(rad/s)`).

Rack translational viscous friction coefficient

Viscous friction coefficient μR for the rack motion. The default is `0`.

From the drop-down list, choose units. The default is newton/(meters/second) (`N/(m/s)`).

### Thermal Port

Thermal mass

Thermal energy required to change the component temperature by a single degree. The greater the thermal mass, the more resistant the component is to temperature change. The default value is `50` J/K.

Initial temperature

Component temperature at the start of simulation. The initial temperature alters the component efficiency according to an efficiency vector that you specify, affecting the starting meshing or friction losses. The default value is `300` K.

## Extended Capabilities

### Real-Time and Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation

For optimal simulation performance, use the Meshing Losses > Friction model parameter default setting, ```No meshing losses - Suitable for HIL simulation```.