Planetary gear set of carrier, planet, and ring wheels with adjustable gear ratio and friction losses


Simscape / Driveline / Gears / Planetary Subcomponents


The Ring-Planet gear block represents a set of carrier, planet, and ring gear wheels. The planet is connected to and rotates with respect to the carrier. The planet and ring corotate with a fixed gear ratio that you specify. A ring-planet and a sun-planet gear are basic elements of a planetary gear set. For model details, see Ring-Planet Gear Model.

Thermal Modeling

You can model the effects of heat flow and temperature change through an optional thermal conserving port. By default, the thermal port is hidden. To expose the thermal port, right-click the block in your model and, from the context menu, select Simscape > Block choices. Select a variant that includes a thermal port. Specify the associated thermal parameters for the component.

Ring-Planet Gear Model

Ideal Gear Constraints and Gear Ratios

Ring-Planet imposes one kinematic and one geometric constraint on the three connected axes:

rRωR = rCωC + rPωP , rR = rC + rP .

The ring-planet gear ratio gRP = rR/rP = NR/NP. N is the number of teeth on each gear. In terms of this ratio, the key kinematic constraint is:

gRPωR = ωP + (gRP – 1)ωC .

The three degrees of freedom reduce to two independent degrees of freedom. The gear pair is (1,2) = (P,R).


The ring-planet gear ratio gRP must be strictly greater than one.

The torque transfer is:

gRPτP + τRτloss = 0 ,

with τloss = 0 in the ideal case.

Nonideal Gear Constraints and Losses

In the nonideal case, τloss ≠ 0. See Model Gears with Losses.


  • Gear inertia is assumed negligible.

  • Gears are treated as rigid components.

  • Coulomb friction slows down simulation. See Adjust Model Fidelity.


CRotational conserving port representing the planet carrier
PRotational conserving port representing the planet gear
RRotational conserving port representing the ring gear
HThermal conserving port for thermal modeling



Ring (R) to planet (P) teeth ratio (NR/NP)

Ratio gRP of the ring gear wheel radius to the planet gear wheel radius. This gear ratio must be strictly greater than 1. The default value is 2.

Meshing Losses

Parameters for meshing losses vary with the block variant chosen—one with a thermal port for thermal modeling and one without it.

 Without Thermal Port

 With Thermal Port

Viscous Losses

Planet-carrier viscous friction coefficient

Viscous friction coefficient μP for the planet-carrier gear motion. The default is 0.

From the drop-down list, choose units. The default is newton-meters/(radians/second) (N*m/(rad/s)).

Thermal Port

Thermal mass

Thermal energy required to change the component temperature by a single degree. The greater the thermal mass, the more resistant the component is to temperature change. The default value is 50 J/K.

Initial temperature

Component temperature at the start of simulation. The initial temperature alters the component efficiency according to an efficiency vector that you specify, affecting the starting meshing or friction losses. The default value is 300 K.

Extended Capabilities

Real-Time and Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation

For optimal simulation performance, use the Meshing Losses > Friction model parameter default setting, No meshing losses - Suitable for HIL simulation.

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