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Tire with longitudinal dynamics and motion approximated by Magic Formula
The Tire (Magic Formula) block models the longitudinal dynamics of a vehicle axle-wheel-tire combination, with road contact represented by the Magic Formula and optional deformation compliance. The convention for the vertical load is positive downward. If the vertical load is zero or negative, the horizontal tire force vanishes. In that case, the tire is just touching the ground or has left the ground.
The longitudinal direction lies along the forward-backward axis of the tire. For model details, see Tire Model.
Note: Tire (Magic Formula) is based on the Tire-Road Interaction (Magic Formula) block and the Simscape™ Wheel and Axle, Translational Spring, and Translational Damper blocks. For more information, see the Tire-Road Interaction (Magic Formula) block reference page about how Tire (Magic Formula) behaves in contact with the road. |
You specify the downward vertical load F_{z} through a physical input signal at port N. The block reports the developed tire slip κ, as a decimal fraction, through a physical signal output at port S.
The wheel axle rotation is represented by the rotational conserving port A. The wheel axle transfer of horizontal thrust reaction to the vehicle is represented by the translational conserving port H.
Select how to use the Magic Formula to model the tire-road interaction. The default is Peak longitudinal force and corresponding slip.
Peak longitudinal force and corresponding slip — Parametrize the Magic Formula with physical characteristics of the tire.
Constant Magic Formula coefficients—Parameterize the Magic Formula directly with its coefficients. If you select this option, the panel changes from its default.
Load-dependent Magic Formula coefficients—Parametrize the Magic Formula directly with load-dependent coefficients. If you select this option, the panel changes from its default.
Unloaded tire-wheel radius r_{w}. The default is 0.3.
From the drop-down list, choose units. The default is meters (m).
Select how to model the dynamical compliance of the tire. The default is No compliance — Suitable for HIL simulation.
No compliance — Suitable for HIL simulation — Tire is modeled with no dynamical compliance.
Specify stiffness and damping—Tire is modeled as a stiff, dampened spring and deforms under load. If you select this option, the panel changes from its default.
Select how to model the rotational inertia of the tire. The default is No inertia.
No inertia—Tire is modeled with no inertia.
Specify inertia and initial velocity—Tire is modeled with rotational inertia. If you select this option, the panel changes from its default.
Method used to specify the rolling resistance acting on a rotating wheel hub. The default value is No rolling resistance.
Select this option to ignore the effect of rolling resistance on a model.
Select between two rolling resistance models: Constant coefficient and Pressure and velocity dependent.
The default value is Constant coefficient.
Pressure and velocity dependent
The Tire block models the tire as a rigid wheel-tire combination in contact with the road and subject to slip. When torque is applied to the wheel axle, the tire pushes on the ground (while subject to contact friction) and transfers the resulting reaction as a force back on the wheel. This action pushes the wheel forward or backward. If you include the optional tire compliance, the tire also flexibly deforms under load.
The figure shows the forces acting on the tire. The table defines the tire model variables.
Tire Model Variables
Symbol | Description and Unit |
---|---|
r_{w} | Wheel radius |
V_{x} | Wheel hub longitudinal velocity |
u | Tire longitudinal deformation |
Ω | Wheel angular velocity |
Ω′ | Contact point angular velocity = Ω if u = 0 |
r_{w}Ω' | Tire tread longitudinal velocity |
V_{sx} = r_{W}Ω – V_{x} | Wheel slip velocity |
V'_{sx} = r_{W}Ω' – V_{x} | Contact slip velocity = V_{sx} if u = 0 |
κ = V_{sx}/|V_{x}| | Wheel slip |
κ'= V′_{sx}/|V_{x}| | Contact slip = κ if u = 0 |
V_{th} | Wheel hub threshold velocity |
F_{z} | Vertical load on tire |
F_{x} | Longitudinal force exerted on the tire at the contact point. |
C_{Fx} = (∂F_{x}/∂u)_{0} | Tire longitudinal stiffness under deformation |
b_{Fx} = (∂F_{x}/∂ů)_{0} | Tire longitudinal damping under deformation |
I_{w} | Wheel-tire inertia; effective mass = I_{w}/r_{w}^{2} |
τ_{drive} | Torque applied by the axle to the wheel |
If the tire did not slip, it would roll and translate as V_{x} = r_{w}Ω. But the tire actually does slip and develops a longitudinal force F_{x} only in response to slip.
The wheel slip velocity is V_{sx} = r_{W}Ω – V_{x}. The wheel slip is κ = V_{sx}/|V_{x}|. For a locked, sliding wheel, κ = –1. For perfect rolling, κ = 0.
For low speeds, |V_{x}| ≤ |V_{th}|, the wheel slip is modified to:
κ = 2V_{sx}/(V_{th} + V_{x}^{2}/V_{th}) .
This modification allows for a nonsingular, nonzero slip at zero wheel velocity. For example, for perfect slipping (nontranslating spinning tire), V_{x} = 0 while κ = 2r_{w}Ω/V_{th} is finite.
If the tire is modeled with compliance, it is also flexible. Because in this case, the tire deforms, the tire-road contact point turns at a slightly different angular velocity Ω′ from the wheel Ω and requires, instead of the wheel slip, the contact point or contact patch slip κ'. The block models the deforming tire as a translational spring-damper of stiffness C_{Fx} and damping b_{Fx}.
If the tire is not modeled with compliance, then Ω′ = Ω, V'_{sx} = V_{sx}, and κ' = κ. In this case, the tire starts simulation undeformed and remains undeformed.
The full tire model is equivalent to this Simscape-SimDriveline™ component diagram. It simulates both transient and steady-state behavior and correctly represents starting from, and coming to, a stop. The Translational Spring and Translational Damper are equivalent to the tire stiffness C_{Fx} and damping b_{Fx}. Tire-Road Interaction (Magic Formula) models the longitudinal force F_{x} on the tire as a function of F_{z} and κ′ using the Magic Formula, with κ′ as the independent slip variable [1].
The Wheel and Axle radius is the wheel radius r_{w}. The Mass value is the effective mass, I_{w}/r_{w}^{2}. The tire characteristic function f(κ′, F_{z}) determines the longitudinal force F_{x}. Together with the driveshaft torque applied to the wheel axis, F_{x} determines the wheel angular motion and longitudinal motion.
Without tire compliance, the Translational Spring and Translational Damper are omitted, and contact variables revert to wheel variables. In this case, the tire effectively has infinite stiffness, and port P of Wheel and Axle connects directly to port T of Tire-Road Interaction (Magic Formula).
Without tire inertia, the Mass is omitted.
The Tire (Magic Formula) block assumes longitudinal motion only and includes no camber, turning, or lateral motion.
Tire compliance implies a time lag in the tire response to the forces on it. Time lag simulation increases model fidelity but reduces simulation performance. See Adjust Model Fidelity.
These SimDriveline example models use the Tire (Magic Formula) block to include tires and tire-road load:
[1] Pacejka, H. B. Tire and Vehicle Dynamics, Society of Automotive Engineers and Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 2002, chapters 1,4,7, and 8
Differential | Tire-Road Interaction (Magic Formula) | Translational Damper | Translational Spring | Vehicle Body