Worm gear with adjustable gear ratio and friction losses
Simscape / Driveline / Gears
The block represents a rotational gear that constrains the two connected driveline axes, worm (W) and gear (G), to rotate together in a fixed ratio that you specify. You can choose whether the gear rotates in a positive or negative direction. Right-handed rotation is the positive direction. If the worm thread is right-handed, ωW and ωG have the same sign. If the worm thread is left-handed, ωW and ωG have opposite signs.
You can model the effects of heat flow and temperature change through an optional thermal conserving port. By default, the thermal port is hidden. To expose the thermal port, right-click the block in your model and, from the context menu, select Simscape > Block choices. Select a variant that includes a thermal port. Specify the associated thermal parameters for the component.
|ωW||Worm angular velocity|
|ωG||Gear angular velocity|
|α||Normal pressure angle|
|λ||Worm lead angle|
|d||Worm pitch diameter|
|τW||Torque on the worm|
|τloss||Torque loss due to meshing friction. The loss depends on the device efficiency and the power flow direction. To avoid abrupt change of the friction torque at ωG = 0, the friction torque is introduced via the hyperbolic function.|
|τfr||Steady-state value of the friction torque at ωG → ∞.|
|ηWG||Torque transfer efficiency from worm to gear|
|ηGW||Torque transfer efficiency from gear to worm|
|Vector of viscous friction coefficients for the worm and gear|
Worm gear imposes one kinematic constraint on the two connected axes:
ωW = RWGωG .
The two degrees of freedom are reduced to one independent degree of freedom. The forward-transfer gear pair convention is (1,2) = (W,G).
The torque transfer is:
RWGτW – τG – τloss = 0 ,
with τloss = 0 in the ideal case.
In the nonideal case, τloss ≠ 0. For general considerations on nonideal gear modeling, see Model Gears with Losses.
In the contact friction case, ηWG and ηGW are determined by:
The worm-gear threading geometry, specified by lead angle λ and normal pressure angle α.
The surface contact friction coefficient k.
ηWG = (cosα – k·tanλ)/(cosα + k/tanλ) ,
ηGW = (cosα – k/tanλ)/(cosα + k·tanλ) .
In the constant friction case, you specify ηWG and ηGW, independently of geometric details.
ηGW has two distinct regimes, depending on lead angle λ, separated by the self-locking point at which ηGW = 0 and cosα = k/tanλ.
In the overhauling regime, ηGW > 0, and the force acting on the nut can rotate the screw.
In the self-locking regime, ηGW < 0, and an external torque must be applied to the screw to release an otherwise locked mechanism. The more negative is ηGW, the larger the torque must be to release the mechanism.
ηWG is conventionally positive.
The efficiencies η of meshing between worm and gear are fully active only if the transmitted power is greater than the power threshold.
If the power is less than the threshold, the actual efficiency is automatically regularized to unity at zero velocity.
The viscous friction coefficient μW controls the viscous friction torque experienced by the worm from lubricated, nonideal gear threads and viscous bearing losses. The viscous friction torque on a worm driveline axis is –μWωW. ωW is the angular velocity of the worm with respect to its mounting.
The viscous friction coefficient μG controls the viscous friction torque experienced by the gear, mainly from viscous bearing losses. The viscous friction torque on a gear driveline axis is –μGωG. ωG is the angular velocity of the gear with respect to its mounting.
Gear inertia is assumed negligible.
Gears are treated as rigid components.
Coulomb friction slows down simulation. See Adjust Model Fidelity.
|W||Rotational conserving port representing the worm component|
|G||Rotational conserving port representing the gear component|
|H||Thermal conserving port for thermal modeling|
Gear or transmission ratio
RWG determined as the
ratio of the worm angular velocity to the gear angular velocity. The
Choose the directional sense of gear rotation corresponding to
positive worm rotation. The default is
If you select
Left-handed, rotation of the worm in
the generally-assigned positive direction results in the gear rotation
in negative direction.
Parameters for friction losses vary with the block variant chosen—that with a thermal port for thermal modeling or that without a thermal port.
Vector of viscous friction coefficients
μG], for the worm and gear,
respectively. The default is
From the drop-down list, choose units. The default is
Thermal energy required to change the component temperature
by a single degree. The greater the thermal mass, the more resistant
the component is to temperature change. The default value is
Component temperature at the start of simulation. The initial
temperature alters the component efficiency according to an efficiency
vector that you specify, affecting the starting meshing or friction
losses. The default value is
For optimal simulation performance, use the Friction Losses > Friction model parameter default setting,
No friction losses - Suitable
for HIL simulation.