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Define component equations
equations
Expression1
== Expression2;
end
equations begins the equation section in a component file; this section is terminated by an end keyword. It is executed throughout the simulation. The purpose of the equation section is to establish the mathematical relationships among a component's variables, parameters, inputs, outputs, time and the time derivatives of each of these entities. All members declared in the component are available by their name in the equation section.
The following syntax defines a simple equation.
equations
Expression1
== Expression2;
end
The statement Expression1 == Expression2 is an equation statement. It specifies continuous mathematical equality between two objects of class Expression. An Expression is any valid MATLAB^{®} expression that does not use any of the relational operators: ==, <, >, <=, >=, ~=, &&, ||. Expression may be constructed from any of the identifiers defined in the model declaration.
The equation section may contain multiple equation statements. You can also specify conditional equations by using if statements as follows:
equations
if Expression
ExpressionList
{ elseif Expression
ExpressionList }
else
ExpressionList
end
end
Note The total number of equation expressions, their dimensionality, and their order must be the same for every branch of the if-elseif-else statement. |
You can define intermediate terms and use them in equations by using let statements as follows:
equations
let
declaration
clause
in
expression
clause
end
end
The declaration clause assigns an identifier, or set of identifiers, on the left-hand side of the equal sign (=) to an equation expression on the right-hand side of the equal sign:
LetValue = EquationExpression
The expression clause defines the scope of the substitution. It starts with the keyword in, and may contain one or more equation expressions. All the expressions assigned to the identifiers in the declaration clause are substituted into the equations in the expression clause during parsing.
The following rules apply to the equation section:
EquationList is one or more objects of class EquationExpression, separated by a comma, semicolon, or newline.
EquationExpression can be one of:
Expression
Conditional expression (if-elseif-else statement)
Let expression (let-in-end statement)
Expression is any valid MATLAB expression. It may be formed with the following operators:
Arithmetic
Relational (with restrictions, see Use of Relational Operators in Equations)
Logical
Primitive Math
Indexing
Concatenation
In the equation section, Expression may not be formed with the following operators:
Matrix Inversion
MATLAB functions not listed in Supported Functions
The colon operator may take only constants or end as its operands.
All members of the component are accessible in the equation section, but none are writable.
The following MATLAB functions can be used in the equation section. The table contains additional restrictions that pertain only to the equation section. It also indicates whether a function is discontinuous. If the function is discontinuous, it introduces a zero-crossing when used with one or more continuous operands.
Supported Functions
Name | Restrictions | Discontinuous |
---|---|---|
plus | ||
uplus | ||
minus | ||
uminus | ||
mtimes | ||
times | ||
mpower | ||
power | ||
mldivide | Nonmatrix denominator | |
mrdivide | Nonmatrix denominator | |
ldivide | ||
rdivide | ||
eq | Do not use with continuous variables | |
ne | Do not use with continuous variables | |
lt | ||
gt | ||
le | ||
ge | ||
and | Yes | |
or | Yes | |
sin | ||
cos | ||
tan | ||
asin | ||
acos | ||
atan | ||
atan2 | ||
log | ||
log10 | ||
sinh | ||
cosh | ||
tanh | ||
exp | ||
sqrt | For negative numbers, calculated as . For example, sqrt(–1) = –1. | |
abs | Yes | |
logical | Yes | |
sign | Yes | |
floor | Scalar argument | Yes |
ceil | Scalar argument | Yes |
fix | Scalar argument | Yes |
round | Scalar argument | Yes |
For a component where x and y are declared as 1x1 variables, specify an equation of the form y = x^{2}:
equations y == x^2; end
For the same component, specify the following piecewise equation:
This equation, written in the Simscape™ language, would look like:
equations if x >= -1 && x <= 1 y == x; else y == x^2; end end