Friction in contact between moving bodies
Mechanical Translational Elements
The Translational Friction block represents friction in contact between moving bodies. The friction force is simulated as a function of relative velocity and is assumed to be the sum of Stribeck, Coulomb, and viscous components, as shown in the following figure.
The Stribeck friction, FS, is the negatively sloped characteristics taking place at low velocities (see ). The Coulomb friction, FC, results in a constant force at any velocity. The viscous friction, FV, opposes motion with the force directly proportional to the relative velocity. The sum of the Coulomb and Stribeck frictions at the vicinity of zero velocity is often referred to as the breakaway friction, Fbrk. The friction is approximated with the following equations:
|vR,vC||Absolute velocities of terminals R and C, respectively|
|f||Viscous friction coefficient|
The approximation above is too idealistic and has a substantial
drawback. The characteristic is discontinuous at
0, which creates considerable computational problems. It has been
proven that the discontinuous friction model is a nonphysical simplification
in the sense that the mechanical contact with distributed mass and
compliance cannot exhibit an instantaneous change in force (see ). There are numerous
models of friction without discontinuity. The Translational
Friction block implements one of the simplest versions of
continuous friction models. The friction force-relative velocity characteristic
of this approximation is shown in the following figure.
The discontinuity is eliminated by introducing a very small, but finite, region in the zero velocity vicinity, within which friction force is assumed to be linearly proportional to velocity, with the proportionality coefficient Fbrk/vth, where vth is the velocity threshold. It has been proven experimentally that the velocity threshold in the range between 10-4 and 10-6 m/s is a good compromise between the accuracy and computational robustness and effectiveness. Notice that friction force computed with this approximation does not actually stop relative motion when an acting force drops below breakaway friction level. The bodies will creep relative to each other at a very small velocity proportional to acting force.
As a result of introducing the velocity threshold, the block equations are slightly modified:
If |v| >= vth,
If |v| < vth,
The block positive direction is from port R to port C. This means that if the port R velocity is greater than that of port C, the block transmits force from R to C.
Breakaway friction force, which is the sum of the Coulomb and
the static frictions. It must be greater than or equal to the Coulomb
friction force value. The default value is
Coulomb friction force, which is the friction that opposes motion
with a constant force at any velocity. The default value is
Proportionality coefficient between the friction force and the
relative velocity. The parameter value must be greater than or equal
to zero. The default value is
The parameter sets the value of coefficient
which is used for the approximation of the transition between the
static and the Coulomb frictions. Its value is assigned based on the
following considerations: the static friction component reaches approximately
95% of its steady-state value at velocity
and 98% at velocity
which makes it possible to develop an approximate relationship
the relative velocity at which friction force has its minimum value.
is set to
10 s/m, which corresponds to a minimum
friction at velocity of about
The parameter sets the small vicinity near zero velocity, within
which friction force is considered to be linearly proportional to
the relative velocity. MathWorks recommends that you use values in
the range between
The default value is
Use the Variables tab to set the priority and initial target values for the block variables prior to simulation. For more information, see Set Priority and Initial Target for Block Variables.
The block has the following ports:
Mechanical translational conserving port.
Mechanical translational conserving port.
 B. Armstrong, C.C. de Wit, Friction Modeling and Compensation, The Control Handbook, CRC Press, 1995