Implement multi-winding transformer with taps
The Multi-Winding Transformer block implements a transformer where the number of windings can be specified for both the primary (left side windings) and the secondary (right side windings).
The equivalent circuit of the Multi-Winding Transformer block is similar to the one of the Linear Transformer block and the saturation characteristic of the core can be specified or not. See the Saturable Transformer block reference pages for more details on how the saturation and the hysteresis characteristic are implemented.
The equivalent circuit of a Multi-Windings Transformer block with two primary windings and three secondary windings is shown in the next figure.
You can add equally spaced taps to the first primary winding (the upper-left winding) or to the first secondary winding (the upper-right winding). The equivalent circuit of a Multi-Winding Transformer block with one primary winding and eight taps on the first of the two secondary windings is shown in the next figure.
The winding terminals are identified by the corresponding winding number. The first winding is the first one on the primary side (upper-left side) and the last winding is the last one on the secondary side (bottom-right side). The polarity of the windings are defined by a plus sign.
The tap terminals are identified by their winding number followed by a dot character and the tap number. Taps are equally spaced so that voltage appearing at no load between two consecutive taps is equal to the total voltage of the winding divided by (number of taps +1). The total winding resistance and leakage inductance of a tapped winding is equally distributed along the taps.
Specifies the number of windings on the primary side (left side) of the transformer.
Specifies the number of windings on the secondary side (right side) of the transformer.
no taps if you don't want to add taps
to the transformer. Select
taps on upper left winding to
add taps to the first winding on the primary side of the transformer.
taps on upper right winding to add taps
to the secondary winding on the right side of the transformer. The
number of taps is specified by the Number of
taps (equally spaced) parameter.
This parameter is not visible if the Tapped winding parameter is set to
If the Tapped
winding parameter is set to
taps on upper left
winding, you specify the number of taps to add to the first
winding on the left side.
If the Tapped
winding parameter is set to
taps on upper right
windings, you specify the number of taps to add to the first
winding on the right side.
If selected, implements a saturable transformer. See also the Saturation characteristic parameter on the Parameters tab.
Select to model hysteresis saturation characteristic instead of a single-valued saturation curve. This parameter is visible only if the Saturable core parameter is selected.
The Hysteresis Mat file parameter is visible only if the Simulate hysteresis parameter is selected.
.mat file containing the data to
be used for the hysteresis model. When you open the Hysteresis
Design Tool of the Powergui, the default hysteresis loop
and parameters saved in the
hysteresis.mat file are displayed. Use the Load button
of the Hysteresis Design tool to load another
Use the Save button of the Hysteresis
Design tool to save your model in a new
Winding voltages to measure the voltage
across the winding terminals of the Saturable Transformer block.
Winding currents to measure the current
flowing through the windings of the Saturable Transformer block.
Flux and excitation current (Im + IRm) to
measure the flux linkage, in volt seconds (V.s), and the total excitation
current including iron losses modeled by Rm.
Flux and magnetization current (Im) to
measure the flux linkage, in volt seconds (V.s), and the magnetization
current, in amperes (A), not including iron losses modeled by Rm.
All measurement (V, I, Flux) to measure the winding voltages, currents,
magnetization currents, and the flux linkage.
Place a Multimeter block in your model to display the selected measurements during the simulation.
In the Available Measurements list box of the Multimeter block, the measurements are identified by a label followed by the block name.
Specify the units used to enter the parameters of the Multi-Winding
Transformer block. Select
pu to use per unit. Select
use SI units. Changing the Units parameter
SI, or from
will automatically convert the parameters displayed in the mask of
the block. The per unit conversion is based on the transformer rated
power Pn in VA, nominal frequency fn in Hz, and nominal voltage Vn,
in Vrms, of the windings.
The nominal power rating, in volt-amperes (VA), and nominal
frequency, in hertz (Hz), of the transformer. Note that the nominal
parameters have no impact on the transformer model when the Units parameter is set to
Specify a vector containing the nominal RMS voltages, in Vrms, of the windings on the left side, followed by the nominal RMS voltages of the windings on the right side. You don't have to specify the individual tap nominal voltages.
Specify a vector containing the resistance values of the windings on the left side, followed by the resistance values of the windings on the right side. You don't have to specify the individual tap resistances.
Specify a vector containing the leakage inductance values of the windings on the left side, followed by the leakage inductance values of windings on the right side. You don't have to specify the individual tap leakage inductances.
The magnetization resistance Rm, in ohms or in pu.
The Magnetization inductance Lm parameter is not accessible if the Saturable core parameter on the Configuration tab is selected.
The magnetization inductance Lm, in Henry or in pu, for a nonsaturable core.
This parameter is accessible only if the Saturable core parameter on the Configuration tab is selected.
The saturation characteristic for the saturable core. Specify a series of current/ flux pairs (in pu) starting with the pair (0,0).
When you use the block in a discrete system, you will get an algebraic loop. This algebraic loop, which is required in most cases to get an accurate solution, tends to slow down the simulation. However, to speed up the simulation, in some circumstances, you can disable the algebraic loop by selecting Break Algebraic loop in discrete saturation model. You should be aware that disabling the algebraic loop introduces a one-simulation-step time delay in the model. This can cause numerical oscillations if the sample time is too large.
uses three Multi-Winding Transformer blocks to implement a three-phase
On Load Tap Changer (OLTC) transformer. Because of long simulation
times required for illustrating operation of the tap changer (simulation
time is set to 120 s), the example uses the Phasor simulation method.
Phasor Simulation of On Load Tap Changer (OLTC) Regulating Transformers
A 25 kV distribution network consisting of three 30-km distribution feeders connected in parallel supplies power to a 36 MW /10 Mvar load (0.964 PF lagging) from a 120 kV, 1000 MVA system and a 120kV/25 kV OLTC regulating transformer. The OLTC transformer is used to regulate system voltage at the 25 kV bus.
The same circuit is duplicated to compare the performance of two different models of OLTC transformers:
Model 1 is a detailed model where all OLTC switches and transformer windings are represented. This model uses three Multi-Winding Transformer blocks to implement a three-phase regulating transformer, with the OLTC connected on the high voltage side (120 kV). This model can be used with either continuous or discrete solvers to get detailed waveshapes or with the phasor simulation method (as in the present example) to observe variations of phasor voltages and currents.
Model 2 is a simplified phasor model where the transformer and OLTC are simulated by current sources. This model can be used only with the phasor solution method. It is faster to execute and it should be the preferred model for transient stability studies, when several such devices are used in the same system.
Both OLTC transformer models implement a three-phase regulating transformer rated 47 MVA, 120 kV/25 kV, Y/ Delta, with the OLTC connected on the high voltage side (120 kV).
Select the Model 1 transformer block and use the Edit/Look_under mask menu to see how the regulating transformer is implemented. The OLTC transformer model is built from three Multi-Winding Transformer blocks. Each phase consists of two main windings (winding 2 = 120 kV and winding 3 = 25 kV) and one regulation winding (tapped winding 1). The seven taps of the regulation winding allow eight steps of voltage variation either in positive or negative direction. Three OLTC subsystems contain switches performing tap selection and reversal of the regulation winding.
Run the example. Double-click the Double click for info block to get details.