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PMU (PLL-Based, Positive-Sequence)

Implements a phasor measurement unit using a phase-locked loop

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  • Simscape / Power Systems / Specialized Technology / Controls and Measurements / Measurements

Description

The PMU (PLL-Based, Positive-Sequence) block implements a phasor measurement unit (PMU) using a phase-locked loop (PLL), which computes the positive-sequence component of the input abc signal over a running window of one cycle of fundamental frequency given by input abc. The signal can be a set of three balanced or unbalanced signals which may contain harmonics. The PMU (PLL-Based, Positive-Sequence) block is inspired by the IEEE Std C37.118.1-2011.

The PLL (3ph) block tracks the frequency and phase of a sinusoidal three-phase signal (abc) by using an internal frequency oscillator. The control system adjusts the internal oscillator frequency to keep the phase difference at 0.

The Positive-Sequence (PLL-Driven) block computes the positive-sequence components (magnitude and phase) of a sinusoidal three-phase input signal (abc) over a running window of one cycle of the fundamental frequency tracked by the PLL (3ph) closed-loop control system. The reference frame required for the computation is given by the angle (rad, varying between 0 and 2*pi), synchronized on zero crossings of the fundamental (positive-sequence) of phase A. The angle is also tracked by the PLL (3ph) closed-loop control system.

Because the block uses a running average window to perform the Fourier analysis, one cycle of simulation must complete before the outputs give the correct magnitude and angle. For example, the block response to a step change in the positive-sequence component of a three-phase signal is a one-cycle ramp. For the first cycle of simulation, the output is held constant at the values specified by the initial input parameters.

The three outputs of the PMU (PLL-Based, Positive-Sequence) block return the magnitude (same units as the input signal), the phase (in degrees relative to the PLL phase), and the frequency of the positive-sequence component of the abc input at the fundamental frequency, respectively.

The sample time (Ts) of the block, in seconds, is a function of the nominal frequency fn and the sampling rate Nsr, as follows:

Ts=1fn×Nsr

Finally, the reporting rate (Rt), that determines the length of the interval over which an event will be reported, is related to the sample time using a reporting rate factor k, as follows:

Rt = k × Ts

Limitations

  • Under subsynchronous conditions, the phasor estimation may present erroneous results.

  • Time synchronization from the common time source of a global positioning systems (GPS) radio clock is implicit in the model.

Ports

Input

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Three-phase sinusoidal voltage or current.

Data Types: single | double

Output

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Magnitude of the positive-sequence component of the abc input at the fundamental frequency in the same units as the input signal.

Data Types: single | double

The phase, in degrees, relative to the PLL phase of the positive-sequence component of the abc input at the fundamental frequency.

Data Types: single | double

Frequency, in Hz, relative to the PLL phase of the positive-sequence component of the abc input at the fundamental frequency.

Data Types: single | double | int8 | int16 | int32 | uint8 | uint16 | uint32 | Boolean | fixed point | enumerated | bus

Parameters

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Nominal frequency, fn, in Hz, of the three-phase input.

Sampling rate, Nsr, in point/cycle.

Sampling rate of the PMU. This parameter multiplies the sample time to calculate the reporting rate. The reporting rate factor must be equal to or greater than 1.

References

[1] IEEE Standard for Synchrophasor Measurements for Power Systems. IEEE Std C37.118.1-2011 (Revision of IEEE Std C37.118-2005), pp. 1–61, 2011.

[2] P. Kundur, N. J. Balu, and M. G. Lauby, Power system stability and control. Vol. 7. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994.

Introduced in R2017b

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