Environment block for Simscape Power Systems Specialized Technology models

Fundamental Blocks (powerlib)

The powergui block allows you to choose one of these methods to solve your circuit:

Continuous, which uses a variable-step solver from Simulink

^{®}Ideal switching continuous

Discretization of the electrical system for a solution at fixed time steps

Phasor solution

The powergui block also opens tools for steady-state and simulation results analysis and for advanced parameter design.

You need the powergui block to simulate any Simulink model containing Simscape™ Power Systems™ Specialized Technology blocks. It stores the equivalent Simulink circuit that represents the state-space equations of the model.

When using one powergui block in a model:

Place the powergui block in the top-level diagram for optimal performance.

Make sure that the block uses the name

`powergui`

.

The powergui block becomes disabled during model update. To ensure proper model execution, do not restore the library link for the powergui block.

You can use multiple powergui blocks in a system that contains two or more independent electrical circuits that you want to simulate with different powergui solvers. For example, this system simulates the upper electrical circuit in discrete mode and the bottom circuit in continuous mode. The purpose is to compare simulation performance of the two methods.

To do so, put each circuit in two different subsystem, and then add a powergui block inside every subsystem. The figure shows this configuration:

When you use more than one powergui block in a model:

Do not place a powergui block in the top-level diagram.

Place every independent model in a different subsystem.

Place a single powergui block in the top level diagram of every subsystem.

The configuration of the **Solver** tab depends
on the option that you select from the **Simulation type** list.

**Simulation type**Select

`Continuous`

(the default) to perform a continuous solution of the model.Select

`Discrete`

to perform a discretization of the model. You specify the sample time in the**Sample time**parameter.Select

`Phasor`

to perform phasor simulation of the model, at the frequency specified by the**Phasor frequency**parameter.**Use of ideal switching devices**Select to model the switches and power electronic blocks using ideal or quasi-ideal switches. For more information, see Using the Ideal Switching Device Method. This parameter is visible only when the

**Simulation type**parameter is set to`Continuous`

. By default, this option is not selected.**Disable snubbers in switching devices**Select to disable the snubber devices of the power electronic and breaker blocks in your model. This parameter is visible only if

**Use ideal switching devices**is selected. By default, this option is not selected.**Disable On resistance in switching devices (Ron=0)**Select to disable the internal resistance of switches and power electronic devices and to force the value to zero ohms. This parameter is visible only if you select

**Use ideal switching devices**. By default, this option is not selected.**Disable Forward voltage in switching devices (Vf=0)**Select to disable the internal forward voltage of power electronic devices and to force the value to zero volts. This parameter is visible only if you select

**Use ideal switching devices**. By default, this option is not selected.**Display circuit differential equations**Select to display the differential equations of the model in the Diagnostic Viewer when the simulation starts. This parameter is visible only if you select

**Use ideal switching devices**. For more information, see Using the Ideal Switching Device Method. By default, this option is not selected.**Solver type**Set to

`Tustin/Backward Euler (TBE)`

to simulate the electrical model using a combination of Tustin and Backward Euler methods.Set to

`Tustin`

to discretize the electrical model using the Tustin method.Set to

`Backward Euler`

to discretize the electrical model using the Backward Euler method.The default and recommended method is the

`Tustin/Backward Euler (TBE)`

method, as explained in Simulating Discretized Electrical Systems. This parameter is visible only if you set**Simulation Type**to`Discrete`

.**Interpolate**Select to increase simulation speed by enabling the solver to interpolate in discrete models using power electronics. When this option is selected, the solver captures gate transitions of power electronic devices occurring between two sample times, allowing larger sample times (typically 20X) than you use with the standard solvers. For example, simulating a 5 kHz PWM converter with Tustin (no interpolation) or Tustin/Backward Euler normally requires a 1.0 µs sample time (sampling frequency = 200 x PWM frequency) to obtain a good resolution on pulse generation and guarantee accurate results. With interpolation enabled, using a sample time as large as 20 µs executes faster while preserving model accuracy.

When you enable this option:

Use a continuous pulse generator to guarantee the best accuracy on pulse generation (specify sample time = 0 in pulse-generation blocks).

In

**Simulink Model Configuration Parameters**, select a continuous, variable-step solver (`ode45`

or`ode23tb`

with default settings). The continuous solver is required by the interpolation solver to compute the gate signals time delays with respect to discrete sample times. The solver uses these pulse delays to interpolate between sample times and produce accurate results.

See the power_buck example model to see how interpolation increases accuracy and simulation speed.

**Use time-stamped gate signals**The interpolation method computes model outputs at fixed sample times while taking into account switching events that occur between two sample times. The method receives pulses at fixed time steps and computes the time delays of gate signals arriving within each time step. Computing the time delays enables the method to capture the evolution of states at different switching times.

When

**Use time-stamped gate signals**is cleared, the interpolation method computes the time delays of gate signal.When

**Use time-stamped gate signals**is selected, the block does not compute the time delays of gate signals. You then need to directly provide time-stamped gate signals to the switching devices in your model. See the power_buck example for more information on the concept of time-stamped gate signals in Simscape Power Systems switching devices.The

**Use time-stamped gate signals**parameter is visible only when you set**Simulation type**to`Discrete`

, set**Solver type**to`Tustin`

, and select the**Interpolate**option. By default, this option is cleared.**Store state-space matrices**Select to increase simulation speed by enabling the solver to store and reuse matrix computation results. This parameter is visible only when you set

**Simulation type**to`Discrete`

, set**Solver type**to`Tustin`

, and select the**Interpolate**option. By default, this option is not selected.**Buffer Size (MBytes)**Specify the buffer size for saving state-space matrix computations. This parameter is visible only when you set

**Simulation type**to`Discrete`

, set**Solver type**to`Tustin`

, and select the**Interpolate**and**Store state-space matrices**options. The default is value is`100`

MB.**Sample time (s)**Specify the sample time used to discretize the electrical circuit. This parameter is visible only when the

**Simulation type**parameter is set to`Discrete`

.Set the

**Sample time**parameter t to a value greater than 0. The powergui block displays the value of the sample time. The default is value is`50e-6`

s.**Phasor frequency (Hz)**Specify the frequency for performing the phasor simulation of the model. This parameter is visible only when you set

**Simulation type**to`Phasor`

. The default is value is`60`

Hz.

**Steady-State**Open the Steady-State Voltages and Currents Tool dialog box to display the steady-state voltages and currents of the model. For more information, see

`power_steadystate`

.**Initial State**Open the Initial States Setting Tool dialog box to display and modify initial capacitor voltages and inductor currents of the model. For more information, see

`power_initstates`

.**Load Flow**Open the Load Flow Tool dialog box to perform load flow and initialize three-phase networks and machines so that the simulation starts in steady state.

The Load Flow tool uses the Newton-Raphson method to provide robust and faster convergence solution compared to the Machine Initialization tool.

The Load Flow tool offers most of the functionality of other tools available in the power utility industry. For more information, see

`power_loadflow`

.**Machine Initialization**Open the Machine Initialization Tool dialog box to initialize three-phase networks containing three-phase machines so that the simulation starts in steady state. The Machine Initialization tool offers simplified load flow features but can still initialize machine initial currents of your models. For more information, see

`power_loadflow`

.**Impedance Measurement**Open the Impedance vs Frequency Measurement Tool dialog box to display the impedance versus frequency defined by the Impedance Measurement blocks. For more information, see

`power_zmeter`

.**FFT Analysis**Open the FFT Analysis Tool dialog box to perform Fourier analysis of signals stored in a structure with time format. For more information, see

`power_fftscope`

.See Performing Harmonic Analysis Using the FFT Toolfor an example that uses the FFT Analysis tool .

**Use Linear System Analyzer**Open a window to generate the state-space model of your system (if you have Control System Toolbox™ software installed) and open the Linear System Analyzer interface for time and frequency domain responses. For more information, see

`power_ltiview`

.**Hysteresis Design Tool**Open a window to design a hysteresis characteristic for the saturable core of the Saturable Transformer block and the Three-Phase Transformer blocks (two- and three-windings). For more information, see

`power_hysteresis`

.**RLC Line Parameters**Open a window to compute RLC parameters of an overhead transmission line from conductor characteristics and tower geometry. For more information, see

`power_lineparam`

.**Generate Report**Open the Generate Report Tool dialog box to generate a report of steady-state variables, initial states, and machine load flow for a model. For more information, see

`power_report`

.**Customize SPS blocks**Open

`power_customize`

to create custom Simscape Power Systems Specialized Technology blocks.

The load flow parameters are for model initialization only. They do not have an impact on simulation performance.

**Disable Simscape Power Systems ST warnings**When this check box is selected, the Simscape Power Systems warnings do not display during model analysis and simulation. By default, this option is not selected.

**Display Simscape Power Systems ST compilation messages**Select to enable the command-line echo messages during model analysis. By default, this option is not selected.

**Use TLC file when in Accelerator Simulation Mode and for code generation**Select to use TLC state-space S-functions (

`sfun_spssw_contc.tlc`

and`sfun_spssw_discc.tlc`

) in Accelerator mode and for code generation.Clear this box if you notice a slowdown in performance when using Accelerator mode, compared to previous releases. This slowdown occurs if you have the LCC compiler installed as the default compiler for building external interface (

`mex`

). By default, this option is not selected.**Start simulation with initial electrical states from**If

`blocks`

is selected, initial state values defined in blocks are used for the simulation.If

`steady`

is selected, force all initial electrical state values to steady-state values.If

`zero`

is selected, force all initial electrical state values to zero.The default is

`blocks`

.

**Load flow frequency (Hz)**Specify the frequency used by the Load Flow tool to compute the normalized Ybus network admittance matrix of the model and to perform the load flow calculations. The default value is

`60`

Hz.**Base power Pbase (VA)**Specify the base power used by the Load Flow tool to compute the normalized Ybus network admittance matrix in pu/Pbase and bus base voltages of the model, at the frequency specified by the

**Load flow frequency**parameter.To avoid a badly conditioned Ybus matrix, select the base power value in the range of nominal powers and loads of the model. For a transmission network with voltages ranging from 120 kV to 765 kV, a 100 MVA base is usually selected. For a distribution network or for a small plant consisting of generators, motors, and loads having a nominal power in the range of hundreds of kilowatts, a 1 MVA base power is better adapted. The default value is

`100e6`

VA.**PQ tolerance (pu)**Defines the tolerance between P and Q when the Load flow tool stops to iterate. The default value is

`1e–4`

.**Max iterations**Defines the maximum number of iterations the Load flow tool iterates until the P and Q powers mismatch at each bus is lower than the

**PQ tolerance**parameter value (in pu/Pbase). The power mismatch is defined as the difference between the net power injected into the bus by generators and loads and the power transmitted on all links leaving that bus. For example, if the base power is 100 MVA and**PQ tolerance**is set to`1e-4`

, the maximum power mismatch at all buses does not exceed 0.1 MW or 0.1 Mvar. The default value is`50`

.**Voltage units**Determine the voltage units (V, kV) used by the Load Flow tool to display voltages. The default is

`kV`

.**Power units**Determine the power units (W, kW, MW) used by the Load Flow tool to display powers. The default is

`MW`

.

`power_customize`

, `power_fftscope`

, `power_hysteresis`

, `power_initstates`

, `power_lineparam`

, `power_ltiview`

, `power_loadflow`

, `power_report`

, `power_steadystate`

, `power_zmeter`

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