The example described in this section illustrates modeling of a simple transmission system containing two hydraulic power plants. A static var compensator (SVC) and power system stabilizers (PSS) are used to improve transient stability and power oscillation damping of the system. The power system illustrated in this example is quite simple. However, the phasor simulation method allows you to simulate more complex power grids.
If you are not familiar with the SVC and PSS, please see the reference pages for the following blocks: Static Var Compensator (Phasor Type), Generic Power System Stabilizer, and Multiband Power System Stabilizer.
The single line diagram shown below represents a simple 500 kV transmission system.
500 kV Transmission System
A 1000 MW hydraulic generation plant (M1) is connected to a load center through a long 500 kV, 700 km transmission line. The load center is modeled by a 5000 MW resistive load. The load is fed by the remote 1000 MVA plant and a local generation of 5000 MVA (plant M2).
A load flow has been performed on this system with plant M1 generating 950 MW so that plant M2 produces 4046 MW. The line carries 944 MW which is close to its surge impedance loading (SIL = 977 MW). To maintain system stability after faults, the transmission line is shunt compensated at its center by a 200 Mvar static var compensator (SVC). The SVC does not have a power oscillation damping (POD) unit. The two machines are equipped with a hydraulic turbine and governor (HTG), excitation system, and power system stabilizer (PSS).
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First, look inside the two Turbine and Regulators subsystems to see how the HTG and the excitation system are implemented. Two types of stabilizers can be connected on the excitation system: a generic model using the acceleration power (Pa= difference between mechanical power Pm and output electrical power Peo) and a Multiband stabilizer using the speed deviation (dw). These two stabilizers are standard models of the Fundamental Blocks/Machines library. Manual Switch blocks surrounded by a blue zone allow you to select the type of stabilizer used for both machines or put the PSS out of service.
The SVC is the phasor model from the FACTS library. Open its dialog box and check in the Power data parameters that the SVC rating is +/- 200 Mvar. In the Control parameters, you can select either Voltage regulation or Var control (Fixed susceptance Bref) mode. Initially the SVC is set in Var control mode with a susceptance Bref=0, which is equivalent to having the SVC out of service.
A Fault Breaker block is connected at bus B1. You will use it to program different types of faults on the 500 kV system and observe the impact of the PSS and SVC on system stability.
To start the simulation in steady-state, the machines and the regulators have been previously initialized by means of the Machine Initialization utility of the Powergui block. Load flow has been performed with machine M1 defined as a PV generation bus (V=13800 V, P=950 MW) and machine M2 defined as a swing bus (V=13800 V, 0 degrees). After the load flow has been solved, the reference mechanical powers and reference voltages for the two machines have been automatically updated in the two constant blocks connected at the HTG and excitation system inputs: Pref1=0.95 pu (950 MW), Vref1=1.0 pu; Pref2=0.8091 pu (4046 MW), Vref2=1.0 pu.
Verify that the PSSs (Generic Pa type) are in service and that a 6-cycle single-phase fault is programmed in the Fault Breaker block (Phase A checked, fault applied at t=0.1 s and cleared at t=0.2 s).
Start the simulation and observe signals on the Machines scope. For this type of fault the system is stable without SVC. After fault clearing, the 0.6 Hz oscillation is quickly damped. This oscillation mode is typical of interarea oscillations in a large power system. First trace on the Machines scope shows the rotor angle difference d_theta1_2 between the two machines. Power transfer is maximum when this angle reaches 90 degrees. This signal is a good indication of system stability. If d_theta1_2 exceeds 90 degrees for too long a period of time, the machines will loose synchronism and the system goes unstable. Second trace shows the machine speeds. Notice that machine 1 speed increases during the fault because during that period its electrical power is lower than its mechanical power. By simulating over a long period of time (50 seconds) you will also notice that the machine speeds oscillate together at a low frequency (0.025 Hz) after fault clearing. The two PSSs (Pa type) succeed to damp the 0.6 Hz mode but they are not efficient for damping the 0.025 Hz mode. If you select instead the Multi-Band PSS, you will notice that this stabilizer type succeeds to damp both the 0.6 Hz mode and the 0.025 Hz mode.
You will now repeat the test with the two PSSs out of service. Restart simulation. Notice that the system is unstable without PSS. You can compare results with and without PSS by double-clicking on the blue block on the right side labeled "Show impact of PSS for 1-phase fault." The displayed waveforms are reproduced below.
Impact of PSS for a Single-Phase Fault
Note This system is naturally unstable without PSS. If you remove the fault (by deselecting phase A in the Fault Breaker), you will see the instability slowly building up at approximately 1 Hz after a few seconds.
You will now apply a 3-phase fault and observe the impact of the SVC for stabilizing the network during a severe contingency.
First put the two PSS (Generic Pa type) in service. Reprogram the Fault Breaker block to apply a 3-phase-to-ground fault. Verify that the SVC is in fixed susceptance mode with Bref = 0. Start the simulation. By looking at the d_theta1_2 signal, you should observe that the two machines quickly fall out of synchronism after fault clearing. In order not to pursue unnecessary simulation, the Simulink® Stop block is used to stop the simulation when the angle difference reaches 3*360 degrees.
Now open the SVC block menu and change the SVC mode of operation to Voltage regulation. The SVC will now try to support the voltage by injecting reactive power on the line when the voltage is lower than the reference voltage (1.009 pu). The chosen SVC reference voltage corresponds to the bus voltage with the SVC out of service. In steady state the SVC will therefore be floating and waiting for voltage compensation when voltage departs from its reference set point.
Restart simulation and observe that the system is now stable with a 3-phase fault. You can compare results with and without SVC by double-clicking on the blue block labeled "Show impact of SVC for 3-phase fault." The displayed waveforms are reproduced below.
Impact of the SVC for a Three-Phase Fault