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x = square(t)
x = square(t,duty)



x = square(t) generates a square wave with period 2π for the elements of the time array t. square is similar to the sine function but creates a square wave with values of –1 and 1.


x = square(t,duty) generates a square wave with specified duty cycle duty. The duty cycle is the percent of the signal period in which the square wave is positive.


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Create a vector of 100 equally spaced numbers from to . Generate a square wave with a period of .

t = linspace(0,3*pi)';
x = square(t);

Plot the square wave and overlay a sine. Normalize the x-axis by . The generated square wave has a value of for intervals [) with even and a value of for intervals [) with odd . The wave never has a value of .

xlabel('t / \pi')
grid on

Repeat the calculation, but now evaluate square(2*t) at 121 equally spaced numbers between and . Change the amplitude to . Plot the wave and overlay a sine with the same parameters. This new wave is negative at and positive at the endpoints, and .

t = linspace(-pi,2*pi,121);
x = 1.15*square(2*t);

xlabel('t / \pi')
grid on

Generate a 30 Hz square wave sampled at 1 kHz for 70 ms. Specify a duty cycle of 37%. Add white Gaussian noise with a variance of 1/100.

t = 0:1/1e3:0.07;
y = square(2*pi*30*t,37)+randn(size(t))/10;

Compute the duty cycle of the wave. Plot the waveform and annotate the duty cycle.

ans = 0.3639

Input Arguments

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Time array, specified as a vector, matrix, or N-D array. square operates along the first array dimension of t with size greater than 1.

Data Types: single | double

Duty cycle, specified as a real scalar from 0 to 100.

Data Types: single | double

Output Arguments

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Square wave, returned as a vector, matrix, or N-D array.

Introduced before R2006a

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