The information provided in this section is intended only for use in maintaining existing Level-1 MATLAB® S-functions. Use the more capable Level-2 API to develop new MATLAB S-functions (see Write Level-2 MATLAB S-Functions). Level-1 MATLAB S-functions support a much smaller subset of the S-function API then Level-2 MATLAB S-functions, and their features are limited compared to built-in blocks.
f is the name of the S-function.
During simulation of a model, the Simulink® engine repeatedly
f, using the
to indicate the task (or tasks) to be performed for a particular invocation.
The S-function performs the task and returns the results in an output
A template implementation of a Level-1 MATLAB S-function,
resides in the folder
The template consists of a top-level function and a set of skeleton
local functions, called S-function callback methods, each of which
corresponds to a particular value of
top-level function invokes the local function indicated by
The local functions perform the actual tasks required of the S-function
|Integer value that indicates the task to be performed by the S-function|
The following table describes the values that
assume and lists the corresponding Level-2 MATLAB S-function
method for each value.
|Level-1 Flag||Level-2 Callback Method||Description|
|0||Defines basic S-Function block characteristics, including sample
times, initial conditions of continuous and discrete states, and the |
|1||Calculates the derivatives of the continuous state variables.|
|2||Updates discrete states, sample times, and major time step requirements.|
|3||Calculates the outputs of the S-function.|
|4||Calculates the time of the next hit in absolute time. This
routine is used only when you specify a variable discrete-time sample
time in the |
|9||Performs any necessary end-of-simulation tasks.|
A Level-1 MATLAB S-function returns an output vector containing the following elements:
sys, a generic return argument.
The values returned depend on the
flag value. For
flag = 3,
the S-function outputs.
x0, the initial state values (an
empty vector if there are no states in the system).
ignored, except when
flag = 0.
str, originally intended for future
use. Level-1 MATLAB S-functions
must set this to the empty matrix,
ts, a two-column matrix containing
the sample times and offsets of the block (see Specify Sample Time in Using Simulink for
information on how to specify a sample times and offsets).
For example, if you want your S-function to run at every time
step (continuous sample time), set
0]. If you want your S-function to run at the same rate
as the block to which it is connected (inherited sample time), set
0]. If you want it to run every
(discrete sample time) starting at
after the simulation start time, set
You can create S-functions that do multiple tasks, each at a
different sample rate (i.e., a multirate S-function). In this case,
specify all the sample rates used by your S-function in ascending
order by sample time. For example, suppose your S-function performs
one task every 0.25 second starting from the simulation start time
and another task every 1 second starting 0.1 second after the simulation
start time. In this case, your S-function should set
[.25 0; 1.0 .1]. This will cause the Simulink engine
to execute the S-function at the following times: [
0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.1 ...]. Your S-function must decide at
every sample time which task to perform at that sample time.
You can also create an S-function that performs some tasks continuously (i.e., at every time step) and others at discrete intervals.
For the Simulink engine to recognize a Level-1 MATLAB S-function, you must provide it with specific information about the S-function. This information includes the number of inputs, outputs, states, and other block characteristics.
sizes = simsizes;
This function returns an uninitialized
You must load the
sizes structure with information
about the S-function. The table below lists the fields of the
and describes the information contained in each field.
Fields in the sizes Structure
|Number of continuous states|
|Number of discrete states|
|Number of outputs|
|Number of inputs|
|Flag for direct feedthrough|
|Number of sample times|
After you initialize the
sys = simsizes(sizes);
This passes the information in the
sys, a vector that holds the information for
use by the Simulink engine.
When invoking a Level-1 MATLAB S-function,
the Simulink engine always passes the standard block parameters,
flag, to the S-function as function arguments.
The engine can pass additional block-specific parameters specified
by the user to the S-function. The user specifies the parameters in
the S-function parameters field of the S-Function
Block Parameters dialog box (see Passing Parameters to S-Functions).
If the block dialog specifies additional parameters, the engine passes
the parameters to the S-function as additional function arguments.
The additional arguments follow the standard arguments in the S-function
argument list in the order in which the corresponding parameters appear
in the block dialog. You can use this block-specific S-function parameter
capability to allow the same S-function to implement various processing
options. See the
in the folder
an example of an S-function that uses block-specific parameters.
You can convert Level-1 MATLAB S-functions to Level-2 MATLAB S-functions by mapping the code associated with each Level-1 S-function flag to the appropriate Level-2 S-function callback method. See the Flag Arguments table for a mapping of Level-1 flags to Level-2 callback methods. In addition:
Store discrete state information for Level-2 MATLAB S-functions in DWork vectors,
initialized in the
Access Level-2 MATLAB S-function
dialog parameters using the
object property, instead of passing them into the S-function as function
For S-functions with variable sample times, update
NextTimeHit run-time object property in the
to set the next sample time hit for the Level-2 MATLAB S-function.
For example, the following table shows how to convert the Level-1 MATLAB S-function
sfundsc2.m to a
Level-2 MATLAB S-function.
The example uses the Level-2 MATLAB S-function
msfuntmpl_basic.m as a starting point
when converting the Level-1 MATLAB S-function.
The line numbers in the table corresponds to the lines of code in
|Line Number||Code in sfundsc2.m||Code in Level-2 MATLAB file (sfundsc2_level2.m)|
function [sys,x0,str,ts]= ... sfundsc2(t,x,u,flag)
The syntax for the
function sfundsc2(block) setup(block);
|13 - 19|
switch flag, case 0, [sys,x0,str,ts] = ... mdlInitializeSizes;
|24 - 31|
case 2, sys = mdlUpdate(t,x,u); case 3, sys = mdlOutputs(t,x,u);
block.RegBlockMethod('Outputs' ,@Output); block.RegBlockMethod('Update' ,@Update);
|53 - 66|
sizes = simsizes; sizes.NumContStates = 0; sizes.NumDiscStates = 1; sizes.NumOutputs = 1; sizes.NumInputs = 1; sizes.DirFeedthrough = 0; sizes.NumSampleTimes = 1; sys = simsizes(sizes); x0 = 0; str = ; ts = [.1 0];
Because this S-function has discrete states, the
block.NumInputPorts = 1; block.NumOutputPorts = 1; block.InputPort(1).Dimensions = 1; block.InputPort(1).DirectFeedthrough = false; block.OutputPort(1).Dimensions = 1; block.NumDialogPrms = 0; block.SampleTimes = [0.1 0];
block.RegBlockMethod('PostPropagationSetup',... @DoPostPropSetup); block.RegBlockMethod('InitializeConditions', ... @InitConditions);
sizes.NumDiscStates = 1;
function DoPostPropSetup(block) %% Setup Dwork block.NumDworks = 1; block.Dwork(1).Name = 'x0'; block.Dwork(1).Dimensions = 1; block.Dwork(1).DatatypeID = 0; block.Dwork(1).Complexity = 'Real'; block.Dwork(1).UsedAsDiscState = true;
x0 = 0;
function InitConditions(block) %% Initialize Dwork block.Dwork(1).Data = 0
|77 - 78|
function sys = ... mdlUpdate(t,x,u) sys = u;
function Update(block) block.Dwork(1).Data = block.InputPort(1).Data;
|88 - 89|
function sys = ... mdlOutputs(t,x,u) sys = x;
function Output(block) block.OutputPort(1).Data = block.Dwork(1).Data;