A signal is a time-varying quantity that has values at all points in time. You can specify a wide range of signal attributes, including:
Data type (for example, 8-bit, 16-bit, or 32-bit integer)
Numeric type (real or complex)
Dimensionality (one-dimensional, two-dimensional, or multidimensional array)
Many blocks can accept or output signals of any data or numeric type and dimensionality. Other blocks impose restrictions on the attributes of the signals that they can handle.
In Simulink®, signals are the outputs of dynamic systems represented by blocks in a Simulink diagram and by the diagram itself. The lines in a block diagram represent mathematical relationships among the signals defined by the block diagram. For example, a line connecting the output of block A to the input of block B indicates that the signal output of B depends on the signal output of A.
Simulink block diagrams represent signals with lines that have an arrowhead. The source of the signal corresponds to the block that writes to the signal during evaluation of its block methods (equations). The destinations of the signal are blocks that read the signal during the evaluation of the block methods (equations).
Simulink signals are mathematical, not physical, entities. The lines in a block diagram represent mathematical, not physical, relationships among blocks. Simulink signals do not travel along the lines that connect blocks in the same way that electrical signals travel along a wire. Block diagrams do not represent physical connections between blocks.
Create a signal by adding a source block to your model. For example, you can create a signal that varies sinusoidally with time by adding an instance of the Sine block from the Simulink Sources library into your model. For information about blocks that create signals in a model, see Sources .
You can use the Signal & Scope Manager to create signals in your model without using blocks. For more information, see Signal and Scope Manager .
A Simulink model can include many different types of signals. For details, see Signal Types. Different line styles help you to differentiate the signal types.
As you construct a block diagram, all signal types appear as a thin, solid line. After you update the diagram or start simulation, the signals appear with the specified line styles. The only line style that you can customize is the nonscalar signal type. For information about this option, see Wide Nonscalar Lines.
|Signal Type||Line Style|
|Scalar and nonscalar|
|Nonscalar (with the Wide nonscalar lines option enabled—see Display Signal Attributes)|
|Array of buses|
Use the Property Inspector, the Model Data Editor, or the Signal Properties dialog box to specify properties for:
Signal names and labels
Simulink Coder™ to use to generate code
Documentation of the signal
To access the signal properties in the Property Inspector, first display the Property Inspector. Select View > Property Inspector. When you select a signal, the properties appear in the Property Inspector. To use the Model Data Editor (View > Model Data), inspect the Signals tab and select a signal. To use the Signal Properties dialog box, right-click a signal and select Properties. For information about the benefits of each approach, see Setting Properties and Parameters.
To specify signal properties programmatically, use a function such as
get_param to get a handle to the block
output port that creates the signal line. Then, use
set_param to set the programmatic
parameters of the port.
For an example, see Name a Signal Programmatically.
To learn how to map signal properties to programmatic port parameters, see Signal Properties Dialog Box Overview.
You can name a signal. By default, the signal name appears below a signal, displayed as a signal label. You can name a signal interactively in the model or by using the Property Inspector (View > Property Inspector), the Model Data Editor (View > Property Inspector) Signals tab, or the Signal Properties dialog box. You can also name the signal at the command prompt (see Name a Signal Programmatically). For a summary of how to work with signal names and labels in the Simulink Editor, see Signal Name and Label Actions.
The syntactic requirements for a signal name depend on how you use the name. The most common cases are:
The signal name can resolve to a
Simulink.Signal object. (See
Simulink.Signal.) The signal name must
then be a legal MATLAB® identifier. This identifier starts with an
alphabetic character, followed by alphanumeric or
underscore characters up to the length given by the
The signal has a name so the signal can be identified and referenced by name in a data log. (See Export Signal Data Using Signal Logging.) Such a signal name can contain space and newline characters. These characters can improve readability but sometimes require special handling techniques, as described in Handling Spaces and Newlines in Logged Names
The signal name exists only to clarify the diagram and has no computational significance. Such a signal name can contain anything and does not need special handling.
The signal is an element of a bus object. Use a valid C language identifier for the signal name.
Inputs to a Bus Creator block must have unique names. If
there are duplicate names, the Bus Creator block appends
(signal#) to all input signal
# is the input port
Making every signal name a legal MATLAB identifier handles a wide range of model configurations.
Unexpected requirements can require changing signal names to follow a
more restrictive syntax. You can use the function
determine whether a signal name is a legal MATLAB identifier.
Displaying signal attributes in the model diagram can make the model easier to read. For example, in the Simulink Editor, use the Display > Signals & Ports menu to include in the model layout information about signal attributes, such as:
Port data types
For details, see Display Signal Attributes.
You can also highlight a signal and its source or destination blocks. For details, see Highlight Signal Sources and Destinations.
You can use block parameters and signal properties to specify signal design attributes such as data type, minimum and maximum values, physical unit, and numeric complexity. To configure states, you can use block parameters. When you use these block parameters and signal properties, you store the specifications in the model file.
Choose which strategy to use based on your modeling goals.
To improve model portability, readability, and ease of
maintenance, store these specifications in the model file.
Use the Property Inspector, the Model Data Editor, block
dialog boxes, and signal properties dialog boxes to access
the parameters and properties. You do not need to save and
Consider setting the model configuration parameter
Signal resolution to
None, which disables the
Simulink.Signal objects by the
To configure design attributes and code generation
settings for signals by using a list that you can sort,
group, and filter, consider the Model Data Editor. With
this tool, you store the specifications in the model file
instead of using
See Configure Data Properties by Using the Model Data Editor.
To separate these specifications from the model so that
you can manage each independently, use
Simulink.Signal objects. You can
then configure the specifications in a flat list that you
can sort, group, and filter with the Model Data Editor or
the Model Explorer. To determine where to permanently
store the objects, see Determine Where to Store Variables and Objects for Simulink Models.
You can perform the following kinds of tests on signals:
For many Simulink blocks, you can specify a range of valid values for the output signals. Simulink provides a diagnostic for detecting when blocks generate signals that exceed their specified ranges during simulation. For details, see Signal Ranges.
Many Simulink blocks have limitations on the types of signals that they accept. Before simulating a model, Simulink checks all blocks to ensure that the blocks can accommodate the types of signals output by the ports to which the blocks connect and reports errors about incompatibilities.
To detect signal compatibility errors before running a simulation, update the diagram.
The Signal Builder block displays interchangeable groups of signal sources. Use the Signal Builder to create or edit groups of signals and to switch the groups into and out of a model.
Signal groups can help with testing a model, especially when you use them with Simulink Assertion blocks and the Model Coverage Tool in the Simulink Verification and Validation product.
For details, see Signal Groups.