systune

Tune control system parameters in Simulink using slTuner interface

Syntax

  • [st,fSoft] = systune(st0,SoftGoals) example
  • [st,fSoft,gHard] = systune(st0,SoftGoals,HardGoals)
  • [st,fSoft,gHard] = systune(___,opt)
  • [st,fSoft,gHard,info] = systune(___)

Description

example

[st,fSoft] = systune(st0,SoftGoals) tunes the free parameters of the control system in Simulink®. The Simulink model, tuned blocks, and analysis points of interest are specified by the slTuner interface, st0. systune tunes the control system parameters to best meet the performance goals, SoftGoals. The command returns a tuned version of st0 as st, and the best achieved values as fSoft for the objectives, SoftGoals.

Tuning is performed at the sample time specified by the Ts property of st0.

This command requires a Robust Control Toolbox™ license.

[st,fSoft,gHard] = systune(st0,SoftGoals,HardGoals) tunes the control system to best meet the soft goals, subject to satisfying the hard goals. It returns the best achieved values, fSoft and gHard, for the soft and hard goals. A goal is met when its achieved value is less than 1.

[st,fSoft,gHard] = systune(___,opt) specifies options for the optimization for any of the input argument combinations in previous syntaxes.

[st,fSoft,gHard,info] = systune(___) also returns detailed information about each optimization run for any of the input argument combinations in previous syntaxes.

Examples

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Tune Control System to Soft Constraints

Tune the control system in the rct_airframe2 model to soft goals for tracking, roll off, stability margin, and disturbance rejection.

Create and configure an slTuner interface to the model.

open_system('rct_airframe2')
st0 = slTuner('rct_airframe2','MIMO Controller');

st0 is an slTuner interface to the rct_aircraft2 model with the MIMO Controller block specified as the tunable portion of the control system.

The model already has linearization input points on the signals az ref, delta fin, az, q, and e. These signals are therefore available as analysis points for tuning goals and linearization.

Specify the tracking requirement, roll-off requirement, stability margins, and disturbance rejection requirement.

req1 = TuningGoal.Tracking('az ref','az',1);                 
req2 = TuningGoal.Gain('delta fin','delta fin',tf(25,[1 0])); 
req3 = TuningGoal.Margins('delta fin',7,45);                  
max_gain = frd([2 200 200],[0.02 2 200]);
req4 = TuningGoal.Gain('delta fin','az',max_gain);  

req1 constrains az to track az ref. The next requirement, req2, imposes a roll-off requirement by specifying a gain profile for the open-loop, point-to-point transfer function measured at delta fin. The next requirement, req3, imposes open-loop gain and phase margins on that same point-to-point transfer function. Finally, req4 rejects disturbances to az injected at delta fin, by specifying a maximum gain profile between those two points.

Tune the model using these tuning goals.

opt = systuneOptions('RandomStart',3);
rng(0);
[st,fSoft,~,info] = systune(st0,[req1,req2,req3,req4],opt);
Final: Soft = 1.15, Hard = -Inf, Iterations = 72
Final: Soft = 1.53, Hard = -Inf, Iterations = 86
Final: Soft = 1.15, Hard = -Inf, Iterations = 89
Final: Failed to enforce closed-loop stability (max Re(s) = 0)

st is a tuned version of st0.

The RandomStart option specifies that systune must perform three independent optimization runs that use different (random) initial values of the tunable parameters. These three runs are in addition to the default optimization run that uses the current value of the tunable parameters as the initial value. The call to rng seeds the random number generator to produce a repeatable sequence of numbers.

systune displays the final result for each run. The displayed value, Soft, is the maximum of the values achieved for each of the four performance goals. The software chooses the best run overall, which is the run yielding the lowest value of Soft. The last run fails to achieve closed-loop stability, which corresponds to Soft = Inf.

Examine the best achieved values of the soft constraints.

fSoft
fSoft =

    1.1460    1.1460    0.5434    1.1460

Only req3, the stability margin requirement, is met for all frequencies. The other values are close to, but exceed, 1, indicating violations of the goals for at least some frequencies.

Use viewSpec to visualize the tuned control system performance against the goals and to determine whether the violations are acceptable. To evaluate specific open-loop or closed-loop transfer functions for the tuned parameter values, you can use linearization commands such as getIOTransfer and getLoopTransfer. After validating the tuned parameter values, if you want to apply these values to the Simulink model, you can use writeBlockValue.

Input Arguments

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st0 — Interface for tuning control systems modeled in SimulinkslTuner interface

Interface for tuning control systems modeled in Simulink, specified as an slTuner interface.

SoftGoals — Soft goals (objectives)vector of TuningGoal objects

Soft goals (objectives) for tuning the control system described by st0, specified as a vector of TuningGoal objects. For a complete list, see Tuning Goals.

systune tunes the tunable parameters of the control system to minimize the maximum value of the soft tuning goals, subject to satisfying the hard tuning goals (if any).

HardGoals — Hard goals (constraints)vector of TuningGoal objects

Hard goals (constraints) for tuning the control system described by st0, specified as a vector of TuningGoal objects. For a complete list, see Tuning Goals.

A hard goal is satisfied when its value is less than 1. systune tunes the tunable parameters of the control system to minimize the maximum value of the soft tuning goals, subject to satisfying all the hard tuning goals.

opt — Tuning algorithm optionsoptions set created using systuneOptions

Tuning algorithm options, specified as an options set created using systuneOptions.

Available options include:

  • Number of additional optimizations to run starting from random initial values of the free parameters

  • Tolerance for terminating the optimization

  • Flag for using parallel processing

Output Arguments

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st — Tuned interfaceslTuner interface

Tuned interface, returned as an slTuner interface.

fSoft — Best achieved values of soft goalsvector

Best achieved values of soft goals, returned as a vector.

Each tuning goal evaluates to a scalar value, and systune minimizes the maximum value of the soft goals, subject to satisfying all the hard goals.

fSoft contains the value of each soft goal for the best overall run. The best overall run is the run that achieved the smallest value for max(fSoft), subject to max(gHard)<1.

gHard — Achieved values of hard goalsvector

Achieved values of hard goals, returned as a vector.

gHard contains the value of each hard goal for the best overall run (the run that achieved the smallest value for max(fSoft), subject to max(gHard)<1. All entries of gHard are less than 1 when all hard goals are satisfied. Entries greater than 1 indicate that systune could not satisfy one or more design constraints.

info — Detailed information about each optimization runstructure

Detailed information about each optimization run, returned as a structure.

In addition to examining detailed results of the optimization, you can use info as an input to viewSpec when validating a tuned MIMO system. info contains scaling data that viewSpec needs for correct evaluation of MIMO open-loop goals, such as loop shapes and stability margins.

The fields of info are:

Run — Run numberscalar

Run number, returned as a scalar. If you use the RandomStart option of systuneOptions to perform multiple optimization runs, info is a struct array, and info.Run is the index.

Iterations — Total number of iterations performed during runscalar

Total number of iterations performed during run, returned as a scalar.

fBest — Best overall soft constraint valuescalar

Best overall soft constraint value, returned as a scalar. systune converts the soft goals to a function of the free parameters of the control system. The command then tunes the parameters to minimize that function subject to the hard constraints. (See Algorithms.) info.fBest is the maximum soft constraint value at the final iteration. This value is only meaningful when the hard constraints are satisfied.

gBest — Best overall hard constraint valuescalar

Best overall hard constraint value, returned as a scalar. systune converts the hard goals to a function of the free parameters of the control system. The command then tunes the parameters to drive those values below 1. (See Algorithms.) info.gBest is the maximum hard constraint value at the final iteration. This value must be less than 1 for the hard constraints to be satisfied.

fSoft — Individual soft constraint valuesvector

Individual soft constraint values, returned as a vector. systune converts each soft requirement to a normalized value that is a function of the free parameters of the control system. The command then tunes the parameters to minimize that value subject to the hard constraints. (See Algorithms.) info.fSoft contains the individual values of the soft constraints at the end of each run. These values appear in fSoft in the same order that the constraints are specified in SoftGoals.

gHard — Individual hard constraint valuesvector

Individual hard constraint values, returned as a vector. systune converts each hard requirement to a normalized value that is a function of the free parameters of the control system. The command then tunes the parameters to minimize those values. A hard requirement is satisfied if its value is less than 1. (See Algorithms.) info.gHard contains the individual values of the hard constraints at the end of each run. These values appear in gHard in the same order that the constraints are specified in HardGoals.

MinDecay — Minimum decay rate of closed-loop polesvector

Minimum decay rate of closed-loop poles, returned as a vector.

By default, closed-loop pole locations of the tuned system are constrained to satisfy Re(p) < –10–7. Use the MinDecay option of systuneOptions to change this constraint.

Blocks — Tuned values of tunable blocks and parametersstructure

Tuned values of tunable blocks and parameters, returned as a structure.

In case of multiple runs, you can try the results of any particular run other than the best run. To do so, you can use either getBlockValue or showTunable to access the tuned parameter values. For example, to use the results from the third run, type getBlockValue(st,Info(3).Blocks).

LoopScaling — Optimal diagonal scaling for evaluating MIMO tuning goalsstate-space model

Optimal diagonal scaling for evaluating MIMO tuning goals, returned as a state-space model.

When applied to multiloop control systems, TuningGoal.LoopShape and TuningGoal.Margins goals can be sensitive to the scaling of the individual loop transfer functions to which they apply. systune automatically corrects scaling issues and returns the optimal diagonal scaling matrix d as a state-space model in info.LoopScaling.

The loop channels associated with each diagonal entry of D are listed in info.LoopScaling.InputName. The scaled loop transfer is D\L*D, where L is the open-loop transfer measured at the locations info.LoopScaling.InputName.

More About

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Tuned Blocks

Tuned blocks, used by the slTuner interface, identify blocks in a Simulink model whose parameters are to be tuned to satisfy tuning goals. You can tune most Simulink blocks that represent linear elements such as gains, transfer functions, or state-space models. (For the complete list of blocks that support tuning, see How Tuned Simulink Blocks Are Parameterized.) You can also tune more complex blocks such as SubSystem or S-Function blocks by specifying an equivalent tunable linear model.

Use commands such as systune and looptune to tune the parameters of tuned blocks.

You must specify tuned blocks (for example, C1 and C2) when you create an slTuner interface:

st = slTuner('scdcascade',{'C1','C2'})

You can modify the list of tuned blocks using addBlock and removeBlock. Use commands such as setBlockParam, getBlockValue, and writeBlockValue to interact with and manipulate tuned blocks.

Analysis Points

Analysis points, used by the slLinearizer and slTuner interfaces, identify locations within a model that are relevant for linear analysis and control system tuning. You use analysis points as inputs to the linearization commands, such as getIOTransfer, getLoopTransfer, getSensitivity, and getCompSensitivity. As inputs to the linearization commands, analysis points can specify any open- or closed-loop transfer function in a model. You can also use analysis points to specify design requirements when tuning control systems using commands such as systune (requires a Robust Control Toolbox license).

Location refers to a specific block output port within a model. For convenience, you can use the name of the signal that originates from this port to refer to an analysis point.

You can add analysis points to an slLinearizer or slTuner interface, s, when you create the interface. For example:

s = slLinearizer('scdcascade',{'u1','y1'});

Alternatively, you can use the addPoint command.

To view all the analysis points of s, type s at the command prompt to display the interface contents. For each analysis point of s, the display includes the block name and port number and the name of the signal that originates at this point. You can also use getPoints to programmatically obtain a list of all the analysis points.

For more information about how you can use analysis points, see Managing Signals in Control System Analysis and Design.

Algorithms

x is the vector of tunable parameters in the control system to tune. systune converts each soft and hard tuning requirement, SoftReqs(i) and HardReqs(j), into normalized values fi(x) and gj(x), respectively. systune then solves the minimization problem:

Minimize maxifi(x) subject to maxjgj(x)<1, for xmin<x<xmax.

xmin and xmax are the minimum and maximum values of the free parameters.

systune returns a control system, st, with parameters tuned to the values that best solve the minimization problem. systune also returns the best achieved values of fi(x) and gj(x), as fSoft and gHard.

For information about the functions fi(x) and gj(x) for each type of constraint, see the reference pages for each TuningGoal requirement object.

For information about the optimization algorithms, see [1].

systune computes the H norm using the algorithm of [2] and structure-preserving eigensolvers from the SLICOT library. For information about the SLICOT library, see http://slicot.org.

References

[1] P. Apkarian and D. Noll, "Nonsmooth H-infinity Synthesis." IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, Vol. 51, Number 1, 2006, pp. 71–86.

[2] Bruisma, N.A. and M. Steinbuch, "A Fast Algorithm to Compute the H-Norm of a Transfer Function Matrix," System Control Letters, 14 (1990), pp. 287-293.

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