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# prctile

Percentiles of a data set

## Syntax

``Y = prctile(X,p)``
``Y = prctile(X,p,dim)``

## Description

example

````Y = prctile(X,p)` returns percentiles of the values in a data vector or matrix `X` for the percentages `p` in the interval [0,100]. If `X` is a vector, then `Y` is a scalar or a vector with the same length as the number of percentiles required (`length(p)`). `Y(i)` contains the `p(i)` percentile.If `X` is a matrix, then `Y` is a row vector or a matrix, where the number of rows of `Y` is equal to the number of percentiles required (`length(p)`). The `i`th row of `Y` contains the `p(i)` percentiles of each column of `X`. For multidimensional arrays, `prctile` operates along the first nonsingleton dimension of `X`. ```

example

````Y = prctile(X,p,dim)` returns percentiles along dimension `dim`. ```

## Examples

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Generate a data set of size 10.

```rng('default'); % for reproducibility x = normrnd(5,2,1,10) ```
```x = Columns 1 through 7 6.0753 8.6678 0.4823 6.7243 5.6375 2.3846 4.1328 Columns 8 through 10 5.6852 12.1568 10.5389 ```

Calculate the 42nd percentile.

```Y = prctile(x,42) ```
```Y = 5.6709 ```

Calculate the percentiles along the columns and rows of a data matrix for specified percentages.

Generate a 5-by-5 data matrix.

```X = (1:5)'*(2:6) ```
```X = 2 3 4 5 6 4 6 8 10 12 6 9 12 15 18 8 12 16 20 24 10 15 20 25 30 ```

Calculate the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles along the columns of `X`.

```Y = prctile(X,[25 50 75],1) ```
```Y = 3.5000 5.2500 7.0000 8.7500 10.5000 6.0000 9.0000 12.0000 15.0000 18.0000 8.5000 12.7500 17.0000 21.2500 25.5000 ```

The rows of `Y` correspond to the percentiles of columns of `X`. For example, the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles of the third column of `X` with elements (4, 8, 12, 16, 20) are 7, 12, and 17, respectively. `Y = prctile(X,[25 50 75])` returns the same percentile matrix.

Calculate the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles along the rows of `X`.

```Y = prctile(X,[25 50 75],2) ```
```Y = 2.7500 4.0000 5.2500 5.5000 8.0000 10.5000 8.2500 12.0000 15.7500 11.0000 16.0000 21.0000 13.7500 20.0000 26.2500 ```

The rows of `Y` correspond to the percentiles of rows of `X`. For example, the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles of the first row of `X` with elements (2, 3, 4, 5, 6) are 2.75, 4, and 5.25, respectively.

## Input Arguments

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Input data, specified as a vector or array.

Data Types: `double` | `single`

Percentages for which to compute percentiles, returned as a scalar or vector of scalars from 0 to 100.

Example: 25

Example: [25, 50, 75]

Data Types: `double` | `single`

Dimension along which the percentiles of `X` are required, specified as a positive integer. For example, for a matrix `X`, when `dim` = 1, `prctile` returns the quantile(s) of the columns of `X` and when `dim` = 2, quantile returns the quantile(s) of the rows of `X`. For a multidimensional array `X`, the length of the `dim`th dimension of `Y` is equal to the length of `p`.

Data Types: `double`

## Output Arguments

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Percentiles of a data vector or array, specified as a scalar or array for one or more percentage values.

• If `X` is a vector, then `Y` is a scalar or a vector with the same length as the number of percentiles required (`length(p)`). `Y(i)` contains the `p(i)`th percentile.

• If `X` is a matrix, then `Y` is a vector or a matrix with the length of the `dim`th dimension equal to the number percentiles required (`length(p)`). When `dim` = 1, for example, the `i`th row of `Y` contains the `p(i)`th percentiles of columns of `X`.

• If `X` is an array of dimension d, then `Y` is an array with the length of the `dim`th dimension equal to the number of percentiles required (`length(p)`).

## More About

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### Multidimensional Array

A multidimensional array is an array with more than two dimensions. For example, if X is a 1-by-3-by-4 array, then X is a 3-D array.

### Nonsingleton Dimension

A first nonsingleton dimension is the first dimension of an array whose size is not equal to 1. For example, if X is a 1-by-2-by-3-by-4 array, then the second dimension is the first nonsingleton dimension of X.

### Linear Interpolation

Linear interpolation uses linear polynomials to find yi = f(xi), the values of the underlying function Y = f(X) at the points in the vector or array x. Given the data points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2), where y1 = f(x1) and y2 = f(x2), linear interpolation finds y = f(x) for a given x between x1 and x2 as follows:

`$y=f\left(x\right)={y}_{1}+\frac{\left(x-{x}_{1}\right)}{\left({x}_{2}-{x}_{1}\right)}\left({y}_{2}-{y}_{1}\right).$`

Similarly, if the 100(1.5/n)th percentile is y1.5/n and the 100(2.5/n)th percentile is y2.5/n, then linear interpolation finds the 100(2.3/n)th percentile, y2.3/n as:

`${y}_{\frac{2.3}{n}}={y}_{\frac{1.5}{n}}+\frac{\left(\frac{2.3}{n}-\frac{1.5}{n}\right)}{\left(\frac{2.5}{n}-\frac{1.5}{n}\right)}\left({y}_{\frac{2.5}{n}}-{y}_{\frac{1.5}{n}}\right).$`

## Algorithms

For an n-element vector `X`, `prctile` returns percentiles as follows:

1. The sorted values in `X` are taken as the 100(0.5/n)th, 100(1.5/n)th, ..., 100([n – 0.5]/n)th percentiles. For example:

• For a data vector of five elements such as {6, 3, 2, 10, 1}, the sorted elements {1, 2, 3, 6, 10} respectively correspond to the 10th, 30th, 50th, 70th, and 90th percentiles.

• For a data vector of six elements such as {6, 3, 2, 10, 8, 1}, the sorted elements {1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 10} respectively correspond to the (50/6)th, (150/6)th, (250/6)th, (350/6)th, (450/6)th, and (550/6)th percentiles.

2. `prctile` uses linear interpolation to compute percentiles for percentages between 100(0.5/n) and 100([n – 0.5]/n).

3. `prctile` assigns the minimum or maximum values in `X` to the percentiles corresponding to the percentages outside that range.

`prctile` treats `NaN`s as missing values and removes them.

## References

[1] Langford, E. “Quartiles in Elementary Statistics”, Journal of Statistics Education. Vol. 14, No. 3, 2006.

## See Also

### Topics

#### Introduced before R2006a

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