# Documentation

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# multcompare

Class: RepeatedMeasuresModel

Multiple comparison of estimated marginal means

## Syntax

• tbl = multcompare(rm,var)
example
• tbl = multcompare(rm,var,Name,Value)
example

## Description

example

tbl = multcompare(rm,var) returns multiple comparisons of the estimated marginal means based on the variable var in the repeated measures model rm.

example

tbl = multcompare(rm,var,Name,Value) returns multiple comparisons of the estimated marginal means with additional options specified by one or more Name,Value pair arguments.

For example, you can specify the comparison type or which variable to group by.

## Input Arguments

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Repeated measures model, returned as a RepeatedMeasuresModel object.

For properties and methods of this object, see RepeatedMeasuresModel.

Variables for which to compute the marginal means, specified as a character vector representing the name of a between- or within-subjects factor in rm. If var is a between-subjects factor, it must be categorical.

Data Types: char | cell

### Name-Value Pair Arguments

Specify optional comma-separated pairs of Name,Value arguments. Name is the argument name and Value is the corresponding value. Name must appear inside single quotes (' '). You can specify several name and value pair arguments in any order as Name1,Value1,...,NameN,ValueN.

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Confidence level of the confidence intervals for population marginal means, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'alpha' and a scalar value in the range of 0 through 1. The confidence level is 100*(1–alpha)%.

Example: 'alpha',0.01

Data Types: double | single

Factor to do the comparisons by, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'By' and a character vector. The comparison between levels of var occurs separately for each value of the factor you specify.

If you have more then one between-subjects factors, A, B, and C, and if you want to do the comparisons of A levels separately for each level of C, then specify A as the var argument and specify C using the 'By' argument as follows.

Example: 'By',C

Data Types: char

Type of critical value to use, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'ComparisonType' and one of the following.

Comparison TypeDefinition
'tukey-kramer'Default. Also called Tukey's Honest Significant Difference procedure. It is based on the Studentized range distribution. According to the unproven Tukey-Kramer conjecture, it is also accurate for problems where the quantities being compared are correlated, as in analysis of covariance with unbalanced covariate values.
'dunn-sidak'Use critical values from the t distribution, after an adjustment for multiple comparisons that was proposed by Dunn and proved accurate by Sidák. The critical value is

$|t|=\frac{|{\overline{y}}_{i}-{\overline{y}}_{j}|}{\sqrt{MSE\left(\frac{1}{{n}_{i}}+\frac{1}{{n}_{j}}\right)}}>{t}_{1-\eta /2,v,}$

where

$\eta =1-{\left(1-\alpha \right)}^{{}^{1}{\left(\begin{array}{l}k\\ 2\end{array}\right)}}}$

and ng is the number of groups (marginal means). This procedure is similar to, but less conservative than, the Bonferroni procedure.
'bonferroni'Use critical values from the t distribution, after a Bonferroni adjustment to compensate for multiple comparisons. The critical value is

${t}_{\alpha /2\left(\begin{array}{c}ng\\ 2\end{array}\right),v},$

where ng is the number of groups (marginal means), and v is the error degrees of freedom. This procedure is conservative, but usually less so than the Scheffé procedure.
'scheffe'Use critical values from Scheffé's S procedure, derived from the Fdistribution. The critical value is

$\sqrt{\left(ng-1\right){F}_{\alpha ,ng-1,v}},$

where ng is the number of groups (marginal means), and v is the error degrees of freedom. This procedure provides a simultaneous confidence level for comparisons of all linear combinations of the means, and it is conservative for comparisons of simple differences of pairs.
'lsd'Least significant difference. This option uses plain t-tests. The critical value is

${t}_{\alpha /2,v},$

where v is the error degrees of freedom. It provides no protection against the multiple comparison problem.

Example: 'ComparisonType','dunn-sidak'

## Output Arguments

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Results of multiple comparisons of estimated marginal means, returned as a table. tbl has the following columns.

Column NameDescription
DifferenceEstimated difference between the corresponding two marginal means
StdErrStandard error of the estimated difference between the corresponding two marginal means
pValuep-value for a test that the difference between the corresponding two marginal means is 0
LowerLower limit of simultaneous 95% confidence intervals for the true difference
UpperUpper limit of simultaneous 95% confidence intervals for the true difference

## Examples

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The column vector speciesconsists of iris flowers of three different species: setosa, versicolor, and virginica. The double matrix meas consists of four types of measurements on the flowers: the length and width of sepals and petals in centimeters, respectively.

Store the data in a table array.

t = table(species,meas(:,1),meas(:,2),meas(:,3),meas(:,4),...
'VariableNames',{'species','meas1','meas2','meas3','meas4'});
Meas = dataset([1 2 3 4]','VarNames',{'Measurements'});

Fit a repeated measures model, where the measurements are the responses and the species is the predictor variable.

rm = fitrm(t,'meas1-meas4~species','WithinDesign',Meas);

Perform a multiple comparison of the estimated marginal means of species.

tbl = multcompare(rm,'species')
tbl =

species_1       species_2      Difference     StdErr       pValue       Lower       Upper
____________    ____________    __________    ________    __________    ________    ________

'setosa'        'versicolor'    -1.0375       0.060539    9.5606e-10     -1.1794    -0.89562
'setosa'        'virginica'     -1.7495       0.060539    9.5606e-10     -1.8914     -1.6076
'versicolor'    'setosa'         1.0375       0.060539    9.5606e-10     0.89562      1.1794
'versicolor'    'virginica'      -0.712       0.060539    9.5606e-10    -0.85388    -0.57012
'virginica'     'setosa'         1.7495       0.060539    9.5606e-10      1.6076      1.8914
'virginica'     'versicolor'      0.712       0.060539    9.5606e-10     0.57012     0.85388

The small p-values (in the pValue field) indicate that the estimated marginal means for the three species significantly differ from each other.

The table between includes the between-subject variables age, IQ, group, gender, and eight repeated measures y1 through y8 as responses. The table within includes the within-subject variables w1 and w2. This is simulated data.

Fit a repeated measures model, where the repeated measures y1 through y8 are the responses, and age, IQ, group, gender, and the group-gender interaction are the predictor variables. Also specify the within-subject design matrix.

R = fitrm(between,'y1-y8 ~ Group*Gender + Age + IQ','WithinDesign',within);

Perform a multiple comparison of the estimated marginal means based on the variable Group.

T = multcompare(R,'Group')
T =

Group_1    Group_2    Difference    StdErr     pValue       Lower      Upper
_______    _______    __________    ______    _________    _______    _______

A          B           4.9875       5.6271      0.65436    -9.1482     19.123
A          C           23.094       5.9261    0.0021493     8.2074     37.981
B          A          -4.9875       5.6271      0.65436    -19.123     9.1482
B          C           18.107       5.8223     0.013588     3.4805     32.732
C          A          -23.094       5.9261    0.0021493    -37.981    -8.2074
C          B          -18.107       5.8223     0.013588    -32.732    -3.4805

The small p-value of 0.0021493 indicates that there is significant difference between the marginal means of groups A and C. The p-values of 0.65436 indicates that the difference between the marginal means for groups A and B is not significantly different from 0.

multcompare uses the Tukey-Kramer test statistic by default. Change the comparison type to the Scheffe procedure.

T = multcompare(R,'Group','ComparisonType','Scheffe')
T =

Group_1    Group_2    Difference    StdErr     pValue       Lower      Upper
_______    _______    __________    ______    _________    _______    _______

A          B           4.9875       5.6271      0.67981    -9.7795     19.755
A          C           23.094       5.9261    0.0031072     7.5426     38.646
B          A          -4.9875       5.6271      0.67981    -19.755     9.7795
B          C           18.107       5.8223     0.018169     2.8273     33.386
C          A          -23.094       5.9261    0.0031072    -38.646    -7.5426
C          B          -18.107       5.8223     0.018169    -33.386    -2.8273

The Scheffe test produces larger p-values, but similar conclusions.

Perform multiple comparisons of estimated marginal means based on the variable Group for each gender separately.

T = multcompare(R,'Group','By','Gender')
T =

Gender    Group_1    Group_2    Difference    StdErr     pValue       Lower        Upper
______    _______    _______    __________    ______    ________    _________    __________

Female    A          B           4.1883       8.0177     0.86128      -15.953        24.329
Female    A          C           24.565       8.2083    0.017697       3.9449        45.184
Female    B          A          -4.1883       8.0177     0.86128      -24.329        15.953
Female    B          C           20.376       8.1101    0.049957    0.0033459        40.749
Female    C          A          -24.565       8.2083    0.017697      -45.184       -3.9449
Female    C          B          -20.376       8.1101    0.049957      -40.749    -0.0033459
Male      A          B           5.7868       7.9498     0.74977      -14.183        25.757
Male      A          C           21.624       8.1829    0.038022       1.0676        42.179
Male      B          A          -5.7868       7.9498     0.74977      -25.757        14.183
Male      B          C           15.837       8.0511     0.14414      -4.3881        36.062
Male      C          A          -21.624       8.1829    0.038022      -42.179       -1.0676
Male      C          B          -15.837       8.0511     0.14414      -36.062        4.3881

The results indicate that the difference between marginal means for groups A and B is not significant from 0 for either gender (corresponding p-values are 0.86128 for females and 0.74977 for males). The difference between marginal means for groups A and C is significant for both genders (corresponding p-values are 0.017697 for females and 0.038022 for males). While the difference between marginal means for groups B and C is significantly different from 0 for females (p-value is 0.049957), it is not significantly different from 0 for males (p-value is 0.14414).

## References

[1] G. A. Milliken, and Johnson, D. E. Analysis of Messy Data. Volume I: Designed Experiments. New York, NY: Chapman & Hall, 1992.